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Effects of Acetylated Bamboo Particle on Mechanical and Weathering Properties of Bamboo Particle-Plastic Composites
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本研究利用醋酸酐/二甲基甲醯胺混合液對竹粒片進行乙醯化處理，並將乙醯化後之竹粒片與高密度聚乙烯製備成竹材塑膠複合材；同時，利用萬能強度試驗機、X-ray繞射、固態核磁共振、掃描式電子顯微鏡、色差計、超音波材料檢測及示差掃描熱分析（Differential scanning calorimetry, DSC）等儀器，探討乙醯化處理對竹材塑膠複合材機械性質、界面性質及耐候性質之影響。試驗結果顯示，以乙醯化竹粒片所製備之竹材塑膠複合材，其抗彎強度與對照組間無顯著差異，而抗彎彈性模數則隨乙醯化程度提高而降低。至於內聚強度及木螺釘保持力方面，當粒片乙醯化重量增加率為2%時，即能有效提升複合材之內聚強度及木螺釘保持力，其內聚強度由未處理的1.2 MPa提高至乙醯化處理後的2.4 MPa。顯示，透過竹粒片乙醯化處理，確實能有效提高竹粒片與塑膠相容性以及二者間之界面性質。
另一方面，竹材塑膠複合材經戶外耐候試驗可以發現乙醯化處理（WPG 17）除能有效提高竹材塑膠複合材之光安定性之外，亦可有效提高複合材之動彈性模數保留率及抗彎強度保留率。此外，經過120天戶外耐候試驗後，未處理複合材之高密度聚乙烯結晶度由53.8%提高至77.1%，而乙醯化處理之複合材則由68.2%提高至86.7%，顯示耐候初期聚乙烯高分子會斷裂成移動性較高之小分子，進而導致二次晶化（Secondary crystallization）現象。另外，由複合材表面觀察得知，以乙醯化處理竹粒片所製備之竹材塑膠複合材，具有較佳之抗黴性。綜合上述結果顯示，透過竹粒片乙醯化處理，可有效增進竹材塑膠複合材之耐候與防黴等性質。
In this study, bamboo particles were acetylated by treating with acetic anhydride/dimethylformamide (DMF), and then these acetylated particles were used as raw materials to make bamboo particle-plastic composites (BPPC). Effects of acetylation on mechanical, interfacial and weathering properties of BPPC were evaluated by universal testing machine, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), 13C CP/MAS nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer (13C CP/MAS NMR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), color difference meter, ultrasonic material tester, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). These results showed that the modulus of rupture (MOR) of BPPC had no significant difference between untreated and acetylated ones, but the modulus of elasticity (MOE) of BPPC decreased with increasing the extents of acetylation. However, internal bond strength and wood screw-holding strength of BPPC were significantly increased after acetylation, even though the weight gain of acetylated bamboo particle was only 2%, the internal bond strength of untreated and acetylated BPPC were 1.2 MPa and 2.4 MPa, respectively. Accordingly, it indicates that the compatibility and interfacial interaction between the bamboo particle and the polymeric matrix can be enhanced through acetylation process.
On the other hand, the results of outdoor weathering test showed that, not only the photostability of BPPC could be improved through acetylation process, but also the retained dMOE ratio and MOR ratio of BPPC were significantly increased. Furthermore, the HDPE crystallinity of untreated BPPC was increased from 53.8% to 77.1%, while the acetylated BPPC was increased from 68.2% to 86.7% after 120-day outdoor weathering exposure. This result indicates that the chain scission of polyethylene was occurred within 120-day weathering exposure, and the resulting shorter chains were more mobile, thereby allowed them for secondary crystallization. In addition, the mildew resistance of acetylated BPPC was higher than that of untreated BPPC. Accordingly, these results conclude that the weatherability and antimildew property of BPPC also can be enhanced through acetylation process.
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