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Seasonal Variations of Soil Respiration at Natural Hardwoods and China-fir Plantation in Hui-Sun Experiment Forest
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(1994) Carbon Mineralization. In A. L. Page et al. (eds.) Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. 2nd ed. Agronomy 38:835-863.||摘要:||
本試驗於惠蓀林場以開放式連續抽氣法測定天然闊葉林及杉木人工林之土壤呼吸量，試驗期間從2006年8月至2007年12月，兩林份又各別有保留枯枝落葉及去除枯枝落葉兩種處理。試驗期間天然闊葉林保留枯枝落葉之土壤呼吸量在28.20±3.48～136.39±3.65 CO2 kg ha-1 day-1之間，去除枯枝落葉之土壤呼吸量在19.06±2.88～88.91±10.37 CO2 kg ha-1 day-1之間，12月土壤呼吸呈最低量，7月為最高峰；杉木林保留枯枝落葉之土壤呼吸量在24.84±7.29～135.10± 18.31 CO2 kg ha-1 day-1之間，去除枯枝落葉之土壤呼吸量在18.01±1.78～75.27± 5.84 CO2 kg ha-1 day-1 之間，12月呈最低量，6月為最高峰，上述結果顯示，土壤呼吸量會隨著時間有季節性的變動。比較天然闊葉林和杉木人工林的土壤呼吸量，不論是年平均值或是月平均量，都顯示天然闊葉林之土壤呼吸量會高於杉木林；在溫度較高的夏季，天然林之土壤呼吸量更會顯著出現大於杉木林。在不同的處理方式上，這兩個林分的土壤呼吸量都呈現保留枯枝落葉處理大於去除枯枝落葉處理的結果。此外，移除枯落物之Q10值明顯高於保留枯落物處理，顯示移除枯落物時，土壤呼吸對溫度的敏感性也相對增高。溫度為本試驗影響土壤呼吸量最重要的環境因子，具顯著正相關性。兩林份的土壤含水率皆相當高，在此條件下含水率對土壤呼吸不具影響。另微生物氮生質量在兩林份之間也不具差異性，但會為隨著季節而變動，且與土壤呼吸呈顯著正相關。天然林之真菌菌落數大於杉木林，細菌則無差異性；具有較多真菌，其枯落物分解速率亦較為快速。天然闊葉林地表枯落物量亦會隨季節而變化，其與土壤呼吸具正相關性；杉木林枯落物較難以分解，會大量累積於林地，枯落物量與土壤呼吸則不具相關性。不同林型及不同的植被會有不相同之枯落物性質，而土壤之微生物結構亦會有所不同，枯落物之分解速率也會受其影響，這些因素可能都是造成天然闊葉林及杉木人工林土壤呼吸量差異的原因。而土壤呼吸量釋放之多寡亦會影響到森林冠層二氧化碳之濃度，進而影響大氣之CO2濃度。
From August 2006 to December 2007, we used Continue-Open-Flow-Chamber method to measure soil respiration at natural hardwoods (NH) and China-fir plantation (CFP) in Hui-Sun Experiment Forest. There were two treatments in each forest type—“with litter fall” and “without litter fall”. In NH the soil respiration rates were 28.20 ± 3.48 ~ 136.39 ± 3.65 and 19.06 ± 2.88 ~ 88.91 ± 10.37 CO2 kg ha-1 day-1 in treatments with and without litter fall respectively. In CFP the soil respiration rates were 24.84 ± 7.29 ~ 135.10 ± 18.31 and 18.01 ± 1.78 ~ 75.27 ± 5.84 CO2 kg ha-1 day-1 in treatments with and without litter fall respectively. In all treatments, the soil respiration was lower in December and higher in June or July. The annual and monthly rates of soil respiration were both higher in NH than in CFP. The difference between NH and CFP was particularly great in summer. In both forest types, the soil respiration rates were higher in the treatments with litter fall than those without litter fall. However, the Q10 value was lower in treatments with litter fall than those without litter fall, suggesting that the removal of litter fall would increase the temperature sensitivity of soil respirations. In this study, temperature was the most important environmental factor of soil respiration. There was a significantly positive correlation between temperature and soil respiration. Due to high soil moisture in both NH and CFP, the soil moisture had no effects on soil respiration. Microbial biomass N showed the seasonal fluctuation and had a positive correlation with soil respiration, but was not significantly different between NH and CFP. Soil fungal colonies were greater in NH than in CFP, probably resulting in greater litter decomposition rate in NH. In NH the litter amount varied with the seasons, and had a positive correlation with soil respiration. By contrast, the litter of CFP was difficult to decompose, and thus accumulated in a large amount on forest floor. Different forest stands and vegetation types had different litter quality as well as different soil micro-organisms status. The differences in soil respiration between NH and CFP may be caused by different litter fall decomposition rate. And the soil respiration rates would affect the CO2 concentrations in the canopy of forest, and furthermore affect the CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere.
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