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標題: 運用於駐極體式/純電容式麥克風之含預放大截波器之差動差別放大器
A Differential Difference Amplifier with Preamplified Choppers for Electret/Condenser Microphones
作者: 蔡煊禹
Tsai, Hsuan-Yu
關鍵字: electret condenser microphone;駐極體式麥克風;condenser microphone;differential defference amplifier;DDA;chopper-stabilized amplifier;CHS;preamplifier;電容式麥克風;差動差別放大器;截波穩定型放大器;預先放大器
出版社: 電機工程學系所
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Micromechanics and Microengineering, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. S86-S89, Sep. 2004. [10] R. Nadal-Guardia, A.M. Brosa, A. Dehe, “Constant charge operation of capacitor sensors based on switched-current circuits,” IEEE J. Sensors, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 835-842, Dec. 2003. [11] M. Pedersen, W. Olthusi, P. Bergveld, “High-Performance Condenser Microphone with Fully Integrated CMOS Amplifier and DC-DC Voltage Converter,” IEEE J. Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 7, No. 4, Dec 1998 [12] G. Nicollini, C. Guardiani, “A 3.3-V 800-nVrms noise, gain- programmable CMOS microphone preamplifier design using yield modeling technique,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 915-921, Aug. 1993. [13] C.E. Furst, “A Low-Noise/Low-Power Preamplifier for Capacitive Microphones,” IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits and Systems, vol 1, no. 12-15, pp. 477-480, May 1996. [14] E. Sackinger, W. Guggenbuhl, “A Versatile Building Block: The CMOS Differential Difference Amplifier,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. sc-22, no. 2, pp. 287-294, Apr. 1987. [15] A.V. Rhijn, “Integrated Circuits for High Performance Electret Microphones,” Audio Engineering Society Convention, Amsterdan, The Netherlands, Mar. 2003. [16] K.C. Hsieh, P.R. Gray, “A Low-Noise Chopper-Stabilized Differential Switched-Capacitor Filtering Technique,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 16, no. 6, pp.128-131, Feb 1981. [17] C.C. Enz, G.C. Temes, “Circuit Techniques for Reducing the Effects of Op-Amp Imperfections: Autozeroing, Correlated Double Sampling, and Chopper Stabilization,” Proceedings of IEEE, vol. 84, no. 11, pp. 1584-1614, Nov 1996. [18] P.K. Chan, K.A. Ng, X.L. Zhang, “A CMOS Chopper-Stabilized Differential Difference Amplifier for Biomedical Integrated Circuits,” IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits and Systems. pp. III 33-36, 2004. [19] K.A. Ng, P.K. Chan, “A CMOS Analog Front-End IC for Portable EEG/ECG Monitoring Applications,” IEEE J. Transactions on Circuits and Systems, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 2335-2347, Nov 2005. [20] Lee B. Sung, Loeppert V. Peter, “An impedance spectroscopic study of MEMS microphones,” Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 1250-1255, 2002. [21] M.W. Baker, R. Sarpeshkar, “A Low-Power High-PSRR Current-Mode Microphone Preamplifier,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1671-1678, Oct. 2003. [22] J. Silva-Martinez, J. Alcedo-Suner, “A CMOS preamplifier for electret microphones,” IEEE Int. Symp. Circuits and Systems, vol. 3, pp. 1868-1871, May 1995. [23] J. Silva-Martinez, J. Alcedo-Suner, “Low Frequency Amplifiers for Electret Microphones,” Proceedings of the 38th Midwest Symp. Circuits and Systems, vol. 3, pp. 1018-1021, Aug 1995. [24] M. Brauer, A. Dehe, M. Fuldner, R. Law, “Increasing the performance of silicon microphones by the benefit of a complete system simulation,” IEEE Int. conf. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), pp. 528-531, 2004. [25] P.R. Scheeper, B. Nordstrand , J.O. Gullov, Bin Liu, T. Clausen, L. Midjord, T. Storgaard-Larsen, “A new measurement microphone based on MEMS technology,” J. Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 880-891, Dec. 2003. [26] M.S. Bai, S.W. Huang, C.P. Lin, “Silicon micromachined condenser microphone array for bionic ears,”IEEE Int. Conf. Networking, Sensing and Control, vol. 2, pp. 819-829. 2004. [27] Tengge Ma, Tsz Yin Man, Yick Chuen Chan, Yitshak Zohar, Man Wong, “Design and fabrication of an integrated programmable floating-gate microphone,” Proceedings of the IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), pp. 288-291, 2002. [28] W.H. Hsieh, Tseng-Yang Hsu, Yu-Chong Tai, “Micromachined thin-film Teflon electret microphone,” Int. Conf. Solid-State Sensors and Actuators, vol. 1, pp. 425-428, 1997. [29] [Online] #Charge-Pump [30] Madaffari, “Amplifier with reduced input capacitance,” U.S. patent 6,023,194, Feb 2000. [31] A.M. Lafort, “High Impedance Bias Circuit,” U.S. patent 6,353,344 B1, Mar 2002. [32] Chung Dam Song, Eek Joo Chung, Hyun Ho, “SMD Type Biased Condenser Microphone,” U.S. patent 0,123,155 A1, Jun 2005. [33] National Semiconductor, “Pre-Amplified IC’s for High Gain 2-Wire Microphones LMV1012 Analog Series,” Oct 2005 [34] SANYO, “Electret Condenser Microphone Applications – TF202 Datasheet. ”
本論文提出了一個運用於駐極體式/純電容式麥克風之含預放大截波器之差動差別放大器;最常見的麥克風預先放大器設計為源極隨耦器(Source Follower)電路,可對麥克風做阻抗轉換並有效地讀出訊號,但單端放大器對共模雜訊和電源雜訊的抵制能力不足,而線性度的表現也比較差;之後有人提出差動差別放大器(Differential Difference Amplifier)的架構,具有很高的共模拒斥比,但是仍無法克服低頻雜訊的問題。所以本文加入截波穩定放大器原理,利用振幅調變(Amplitude Modulation)技巧,將預先放大器本身所產生的低頻雜訊以及輸入偏移電壓所造成的誤差降低;最後,結合源極隨耦器、差動差別放大器和截波穩定放大器的特點,提出一個新的麥克風預先放大器;其輸入阻抗超過100 GΩ,電壓增益為21dB,共模拒斥比為115dB,電源拒斥比為64.8dB;聲音的頻率為20Hz ~ 20kHz,而本預先放大器在上述特性模擬的頻寬皆能大於20kHz。在電路實作上,使用TSMC 0.35μm CMOS 2P4M製程模擬並下線,晶片面積是0.5mm²,電源電壓為1.5V~3V,功率消耗為463μW。

This thesis proposes a differential difference amplifier with preamplified choppers for electret / condenser microphones. The most popular microphone preamplifier is source follower circuit. It can convert the impedance of microphone and extract the audio signals effectively. However, the single-ended amplifier's noise rejection capability for common mode noise and power supply noise is not good enough, the linearity is also not quite well. Some papers propose the structure of differential difference amplifier to achieve high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR). However, the low frequency noise is still a problem to be overcome. Therefore, this thesis adds the theorem of the chopper stabilized amplifier by using the amplitude modulation skills to minimize the errors due to input offset and low frequency noise. Eventually, we combine the characteristics of source follower, differential difference amplifier, and chopper stabilized amplifier to generate a new powerful microphone preamplifier. The input impedance is larger than 100GΩ, with 21dB voltage gain, 115dB CMRR, and 64.8dB PSRR. Because the audio frequency range is 20Hz ~ 20kHz, the bandwidth is wider than 20kHz to meet the requirement. The new preamplifier has been simulated and fabricated using TSMC 0.35um CMOS 2P4M technology in area of 0.5mm² for 1.5V ~ 3V supply voltages and the power consumption is 463uW.
其他識別: U0005-2107200610052400
Appears in Collections:電機工程學系所

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