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標題: 台灣豬場中黃病毒之分子流行病學
Molecular Epidemiology of Flaviviruses in Pig Farms, Taiwan
作者: 陳怡瑩
Chen, Yi-Ying
關鍵字: flavivirus;黃病毒;Culex Tritaeniorhynchus;JEV;三斑家蚊;日本腦炎病毒
出版社: 微生物暨公共衛生學研究所
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日本腦炎病毒(Japanese encephalitis virus)與Culex flavivirus均屬於黃熱病毒科(Flaviviridae)中黃熱病毒屬(Flavivirus)的病毒,這兩種病毒主要皆由家蚊來傳播,因此可能在養豬場中共同循環。1990年代以來,許多東南亞國家流行的日本腦炎病毒基因型發生轉變,由原本的第三型基因型轉變成以第一型基因型為主要的流行株;而台灣疾病管制局也於2008年首度分離到第一型基因型日本腦炎病毒,但還未知是否亦發生日本腦炎病毒基因型轉變。而Culex flavivirus為只感染蚊子之黃病毒,目前在台灣並無關於Culex flavivirus的相關研究。

為了監控這兩種病毒在台灣豬場中的分子流行病學,本研究於2009年至2010年在臺灣豬場內進行病毒學監控計畫。於三斑家蚊中共分離出37株日本腦炎病毒陽性檢體,經基因序列及演化樹分析發現,所測得之病毒皆屬於第一型基因型Subcluster I及Subcluster II病毒。再經基因指紋及最短距離生成樹(minimum spanning tree)分析發現,台灣的第一型基因型Subcluster I及Subcluster II病毒皆由日本長崎所傳入,且至少傳入三次。此外,在同時分離到第一型基因型Subcluster I及Subcluster II病毒的台中及雲林場,依其分離率進行相對百分比分析後,顯示第一型基因型Subcluster I病毒似乎比Subcluster II病毒具演化優勢。在Culex flavivirus方面,於台中豬場的三斑家蚊中分離到41個Culex flavivirus 陽性檢體;將其中五個Culex flavivirus陽性檢體進行封套蛋白序列分析後,發現與其他國家核苷酸及胺基酸序列的相似度分別為88~94.2% 及96.9~99.5%;再進行親緣演化樹分析後,發現台灣分離到的Culex flavivirus序列與墨西哥及瓜地馬拉的序列較為相近,但屬於不同的分支。最後將台中豬場的病媒蚊分為CxFV陽性及CxFV陰性組,兩個族群中日本腦炎病毒陽性比率分別為7.3%及0.96%,顯示日本腦炎病毒與CxFV可於三斑家蚊上共同感染,然而CxFV對於日本腦炎病毒的傳播是否有影響仍需進一步證實。

Several flaviviruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Culex flavivirus (CxFV), are transmitted by Culex mosquito, and possible circulating in pig farms in Taiwan. In several Southeast Asia countries, genotype shift of JEV from genotype III to I has been observed since 1990s. Taiwan was one of last countries free from genotype I JEV, but this virus appeared in the end of 2008. CxFV is a novel flavivirus which only infects Culex mosquitoes, but this virus had never been studied in Taiwan.
In order to monitor the molecular epidemiology of both viruses, we conducted virological surveillance among mosquitoes collected from randomly selected pig farms in Taiwan, 2009-2011. A total 37 mosquito pools, consisted of Culex tritaeniorhynchu collected from eight pig farms in six Counties, were JEV RNA positive. Nucleotide sequence followed by phylogenetic tree analysis confirmed all of isolates belonged to genotype I JEV, and fell into two subclusters, I and II. The virus introduction and movement tracked by minimum-spanning tree analysis indicated that the genotype I JEV isolated in Taiwan, including subcluster I and II, were probably origined from Nagasaki, Japan; and introduced to the northern and central region of Taiwan at least three times in the past. According to the relative proportion of subcluster I and subcluster II virus among co-circulating pig farms(including Taichung county and Yunlin county), the subcluster I virus might had evolutional advantage than subcluster II virus. And, total 41 mosquitoes pools collected from Taichung's pig farm were CxFV RNA positive. E protein gene sequence analysis of 5 CxFV isolates revealed that nucleotide identity and amino acid identity with other countries isolates were 88~94.2% and 96.9~99.5%, respectively. The positive rate of JEV among CxFV-infected and -uninfected mosquito were 7.3% and 0.96%, respectively. The possible influence of CxFV on the transmission of JEV should be studied more deeply in the future.
其他識別: U0005-0808201121220500
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