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標題: 台灣屠體沙門氏菌流行病學及抗藥性研究
The study of epidemiology and resistant mechanism of Salmonella on carcasses in Taiwan
作者: 王裕智
Wang, Yu-Chih
關鍵字: carcasses;屠體;Salmonella;serotype;resistance;taiwan;沙門氏菌;血清型;抗藥性
出版社: 獸醫公共衛生學研究所
2000-2003年間於台灣各地區豬、雞、牛屠宰場進行 Salmonella 的分離,共191株。其中豬隻屠體分離株共158株(82.72%),雞屠體分離株為33(17.27%)株,分離率皆呈現逐年遞減之情形。而牛四年內皆未分離出 Salmonella。最常分離到之血清型依序為 S. enterca serovar Derby(27.23%)、S. enterca serovar Anatum(18.32%)、S. enterca serovar Schwarzengrund(14.66%)、S. enterca serovar Typhimurium(10.99%),其中S. Derby 及 S. Anatum 兩血清型菌株只有在豬隻屠體分離出。
在抗生素抗藥性比例分別為 tetracyclin 有83.2%,chloramphenicol 為68.6%,trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole 則是52.3%,皆呈現高抗藥性比例。cephalothin的抗藥性佔17.3%,四年內只有一株對 ceftriaxone 具抗藥性。Quinolone 類藥物nalidic acid、flumequine 抗藥性比例為71.7%及68.6%,enrofloxacin、norfloxacin則為18.8%及13.6%。neomycin 及 gentamicin 則為28.8%及30.4%菌株具抗藥性。Colistin 則只有0.5%菌株具抗藥性,但大多數菌株呈現中間型。
於屠宰廠豬隻及雞隻分離之 fluoroquinolone-resistant 菌株其 quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR)變異為 gyrA 基因上 Ser-83-Phe、Asp-87-Gly 或 Asn,parC 基因上 Ser-80-Arg、Glu-84-Lys 及 parE 基因上 Ser-458-Pro 等六處。其中 fluoroquinolone resistant S. Schwarzengrund(14/28)變異處皆相同,自豬及雞屠體皆分離到,且來自各地區屠宰場,顯示台灣可能有該基因型之菌株流行。
牛 Salmonella 陽性率遠低於豬肉與雞肉,未來監測重點應擺在豬與雞。S. Choleraesuis 在豬隻屠體分離株中僅佔少數,S. Enteritidis 則未自雞隻屠體分離到,此二血清型是否藉由其他途徑傳給人而不以家畜禽肉品傳播須再持續研究。S. Schwarzengrund 對 fluoroquinolone 抗藥性高,且有該菌株流行之情形,並可能藉屠體傳播到人食物鏈中造成感染,需要持續監控調查。

From 2000 through 2003, swab samples from pork, beef carcasses and fluid from broiler were collected from slaughter plants in Taiwan. Total of 191 Salmonella strains isolated from these samples. One hundred and fifty eight (82.72%) strains were isolated from pork, 33(17.27%) strains were recovered from broiler carcasses. The prevelence of Salmonella on pork and broiler carcasses decreased every year. Salmonella was not detected from beef carcasses. The four most frequently isolated serotypes were S. enterca serovar Derby(27.23%), S. enterca serovar Anatum(18.32%), S. enterca serovar Schwarzengrund(14.66%) and S. enterca serovar Typhimurium(10.99%). S. enterca serovar Derby and S. enterca serovar Anatum strains were only isolated from pork carcasses.
The antibiotic resistance of Salmonella were as follows: tetracyclin(83.2%), chloramphenicol(68.6%), trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole( 52.3%), cephalothin(17.3%), nalidixic acid( 71.7%), flumequine(68.6%), enrofloxacin(18.8%), norfloxacin(13.6%), colistin(0.5%), neomycin(28.8%), gentamycin(30.4%). Only one strain was resistant to ceftriaxone.
Fourteen strains fluoroquinolone-resistant S. Schwarzengrund simutaniously carried up to five mutations possibly associated with FQ resistance. The mutation sites included 2 sites(Ser83Phe and Asp87Gly) in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of gyrA gene, and 2 sites(Thr57Ser and Ser80Arg) in the QRDR of parC gene and one site(Ser458Pro) in the QRDR of parE gene, respectively. In addition, four strains that displayed high level of resistance to Ciprofloxacin were carried mutations in the QRDR of gyrA and parC genes, but carried no mutation in the QRDR of parE gene.
In conclusion, the carriage rate of Salmonella in prime slaughter cattle in Taiwan was very low compared with pigs and chickens. This suggests that reduction of Salmonella infection on pig farms and minimizing contamination of carcases at slaughter are the major monitor issues. Specific mutation sites of gyrA, parC and parE genes might be related to the ciprofloxacin-resistance in S. enterica serovar Schwarzengrund strains isolated from pork and broiler carcasses appears to be linked to the same multiple target gene mutations at codon positions 83 and 87 for gyrA, codon positions 57 and 80 for parC, and codon position 458 for parE.
Fluoroquinolones are critical antibiotics in treatment of humen salmonellosis, so the emergence of fluoroquinolone resistant S. enterica serovar Schwarzengrund in food animals is potentially a serious issue for public health. Although the relationship of these FQ-resistant S. enterica serovar Schwarzengrund from animals and previous human patients remains unknown, our results warrants futher investigation to see if these food animals could be a significant threat to human public health in Taiwan.
Appears in Collections:微生物暨公共衛生學研究所

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