Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/66468
標題: 台灣地區豬米血之生物性危害評估
Biological hazard assessment of Blood cake in Taiwan
作者: 林立薇
Lin, Li-Wei
關鍵字: 豬血糕;pig blood cake;豬米血;放血;台灣;black pudding;brown rice pudding;bleeding;Taiwan
出版社: 微生物暨公共衛生學研究所
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Oosterom J., N.S., 1983. urther research into the possibility of Salmonella-free fattening and slaughter of pigs. J Hyg (Lond)91, 59-69. 28. Oswald E, Schmidt H, Morabito S, Karch H, Marches O, Caprioli A., 2000.Typing of intimin gences in human and animal enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: characterization of a new intimin variant. Infectlmmun. Jan;68 (1):64-71. 29. Ockerman HW, Hansen CL. 2000. Animal by-product processing, Technomic Publish Co., Inc. Lancaster, USA. P.523. 30. Pierson MD, and Corlett DA Jr.,1992. HACCP Principles and Applications, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Pp 212. 31. Ropkins K, and Beck AJ., 2000. Evaluation of worldwide approaches to the use of HACCP to control food safety. Trends in Food Science&Technology. 11:10-21. 32. Rho, M.J., Chung, M.S., Lee, J.H., and Park, J., 2001. Monitoring of microbial hazards at farms, slaughterhouses, and processing lines of swine in Korea. J Food Protect 64, 1388-1391. 33. 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摘要: 
食媒性疾病在世界各地廣泛的發生,主要原因為食物受到汙染,讓食品安全成為全球重要的公共衛生問題。豬血糕是我國普遍的傳統小吃,在國際上衛生卻遭受質疑,在血液利用行之有年的歐洲各國來看,它的營養價值已獲得認同和被廣泛使用,在台灣有關豬血糕的資訊非常少,也無建立畜屠血液衛生標準收集和血液加工食品製作的標準規範,所以建立一個可讓業者改善衛生水準的製作流程和相關法規是相當重要的。國內屠宰場對豬隻放血方式有多種,血經常會經由動物體表混著唾液和糞便等進入收集桶,在室溫下又運送至加工工廠,採血上的衛生產生疑慮,所以從歐盟取得的動物血液加工採血廠規範的法規來做國內產業的借鏡。
豬血糕在無規範水平的加工廠裡儘管經過高溫烹煮,再真空包裝後至零售商冷藏販賣,但是從市面上購得豬血糕做總生菌數和腸內道菌和大腸桿菌三個指標性細菌監測 (Log10CFU/g),豬血糕上的總生菌中位數和四分位數 (interquartile ranges;IQR)在認證有無的加工廠裡分別為3.58 (IQP:1.9-5.19),6.13 (IQR:4.51-7.55),兩者相比有絕對顯著差異 (p<0.0001);腸內道菌是2.52 (IQR:0-5.07),4.83 (IQR:0.4-6.02),在認證有無上也有絕對顯著差異 (p<0.0001);大腸桿菌群是0 (IQR:0-0.7),0 (IQR:0-0.48),在認證有無上也有絕對顯著差異 (p<0.0001)。另外還發現防腐劑加添有無在生菌上6.71 (IQP:5.84-7.95),2.56 (IQP:1.24-4.39),有著絕對顯著差異 (p<0.0001),腸內道菌是5.17 (IQP:4.27-6.12),0 (IQP:0-3.47),防腐劑添加有無上有著絕對顯著差異 (p<0.0001);大腸桿菌群是3.63 (IQP:0-5.2), 0 (IQP:0-0),防腐劑添加有無上有著絕對顯著差異 (p<0.0001)。
檢視國內的豬血糕加工廠,建立標準流程,部分工廠流程中需要建立主要管制點,放血和米血製程烘乾和包裝步驟都是非常值得關注的。總結以上結果,歐盟血液收集模式的法規可以參考,豬血糕加工廠上的標準操作流程的建立,豬血糕成品的品質監測,來達到確保豬血糕衛生安全的目的。

Foodborne diseases occur worldwide, mainly through the consumption of
contaminated food. Therefore, food safety is an important public health issue. Pig blood cake is a traditional snack in Taiwan commonly found at street markets. The main ingredient is fresh pig''s blood, which is mixed with sticky rice, pressed into cubes and steamed on a stick, named as one of the world''s top strangest foods. As seen above international squeamish attitude about animals blood certain types of food.
  There are well-establishrd regulation of food-related standards for blood collection or blood product in EU. This regulations stated in the Fresh Meat Directive in EU, which should make it clear to every meat inspector what to look for when approving plants to be used for the hygienic collection of animal blood. More important, avoid jeopardises the health of consumers and may contribute to spread animal diseases.
  This study was conducted to investigate blood cake safety, through determining the prevalence of enterovirulent Escherichia coli and numbers of total count and coliform of blood cake from commercially products in Taiwan. The medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) of aerobic plate counts (Log10 CFU/g) of blood cake between HACCP plants and without HACCP plants were 3.58 (IQR:1.9-5.19),6.13 (IQR:4.51-7.55) (p<0.0001), also the same results found in with preservative and free group were 6.71 (IQR:5.84-7.95) and 2.56 (IQR:1.24-4.39) (p<0.0001).
Results in E.coli counts (CFU/g) of blood cake between HACCP plants and without HACCP plants were 0 (IQR:0-0.7), 0 (IQR:0-4.8) (p<0.0001), also the same results found in with preservative and free group were 3.63 (IQR:0-5.2) and 0 (IQR:0-0) (p<0.0001). Results in coliforms counts (CFU/g) of blood cake between HACCP plants and without HACCP plants were 2.52 (IQR:0-5.07), 4.83 (IQR:0.4-6.02) (p<0.0001), also the same results found in with preservative and free group were 5.17 (IQR:4.27-6.12) and 0 (IQR:0-3.47) (p<0.0001).
  This study implied that slaughtering procedures in abattoir should set a critical control point especially in postprocessing stage food processing. Blood cake contaminated with coliform and Escherichia coli were also noticed. In conclusion, more efforts on regular monitoring system for the hygienic bleeding in abattoir are needed to ensure the blood food products safety in Taiwan.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/66468
其他識別: U0005-0407201211323400
Appears in Collections:微生物暨公共衛生學研究所

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