Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6658
標題: Symbolic Economies in Joseph Conrad''s Nostromo
約瑟夫‧康拉德《諾司多摹》中的象徵性經濟
作者: 鄭仁隆
Jeng, Ren-long
關鍵字: material interest;物質利益;general equivalent;exchange value;valorizer;social imaginary value;institution;fetishism;symbolic economies;最大公約數;交換性價值;定值物;社會想像價值;機制;戀物癖;象徵性經濟
出版社: 外國語文學系
摘要: 
Abstract
The subject of Joseph Conrad's Nostromo is the guardianship of the San Tome mine in the Republic of Costaguana. According to the agreement between the Government and senior Gould, the San Tome mine belongs permanently to the Gould family. But the lack of the knowledge about mining and the lack of capital have put senior Gould in dire distress. After he dies, his son, Charles Gould, sets out to rehabilitate the mine with the aid of the American capitalist, Holroyd. The once war-trodden mine area is transformed into an economic success, which brings, though only temporarily, peace and order to the country. For a time, the great historian, Avellanos, believes that they are on the right track to a complete regeneration of the country. The prosperity brought about by Charles Gould, however, is soon disrupted by a new political revolution led by Montero.
Charles Gould's failure to improve the life of low-class people undermines his economic achievement. While the booming economy improves the life of European settlers, numerous workers are left unattended and ignored. The excess of the working labor is quickly absorbed by Montero's revolutionary army, and for a time, the regime founded upon the San Tome mine is almost toppled by Montero's forces. Montero, however, covets the silver mine as much as Gould; consequently, the former cannot resist the latter's threat to blast the mine into debris. Gould's buying time from Montero as well as Monygham successful stalling Sotillo's attack on the harbor saves Sulaco from being annihilated.
This thesis consists of an introduction and three chapters. The introduction gives a brief summary of Nostromo and Jean-Joseph Goux's theory on symbolic economies. Chapter One provides a detailed interpretation of the relationship between the mode of production in Costaguana and the symbolic economies. Silver is the main issue in this chapter, and it is treated as the general equivalent to mediate economic relationship. Chapter Two continues to explore the silver as general equivalent, further analyzing silver as a force not only governing the economic domains but also exercising its momentous influence on the inter-personal relationship. Viewing from socio-economic perspective, silver represents the determination in the last instance. In Chapter Three, I propose that the State is the general factor in politics that can integrate the resources of human society and sustain the mode of production controlled by the monetary institution.
In conclusion, I will point out the essentially illusionary nature of the concept held by man as to silver and money. The recurrence of the human ordeal and the resurgence of the human desire are the subjects of the novel. A vicious circle of repetition looms large: the novel starts with two gringos perishing in the search for the hidden treasure, and ends in Nostromo's dying with the silver ingots hidden forever on the lonely island.

中文論文摘要
物質利益是約瑟夫‧康拉德《諾司多摩》中所探討的主題。依據哥斯大瓜那政府和古爾德父親之間的協議,聖多美銀礦永久歸古爾德家族所擁有。不過該政府願意將此豐富的銀礦交給古爾德父親,主要乃是因為缺少資金和技術無法開發此一礦區,卻又希望獲得該礦區的利益。然而古爾德父親卻在一樣缺乏開礦知識及資金的情況下抑鬱而終。當古爾德接下此銀礦時,他決心要整治開採此礦區。憑藉著工程師專業的技術,及美國資本家荷爾洛伊德的資金援助,古爾德成功地開挖出大量的銀,並使聖多美獲得「世界寶藏之屋」的美名。
聖多美的成功為沙利哥省帶來豐碩的物質利益。也因此「愛國」的意象不斷出現。故事中偉大歷史學家亞佛雷諾司不斷歌頌聖多美本身即是愛國的表徵,而古爾德更是被稱為愛國者。此時這個曾經飽受貧窮及戰亂摧殘的國家似乎有走向繁榮安定的跡象。只不過,這一段暫時的繁榮卻在蒙特羅領導的革命中結束。
蒙特羅領導革命反抗以古爾德為中心的瑞博拉政權,他的訴求有兩點:奪回被「貴族」、「富豪」所侵佔的土地並歸還人民;驅逐歐美列強的勢力。第一點和馬克思主義有關,而第二點則和民族主義有關。乍看之下,要將一個偏左、一個偏右的意識型態放在同一個革命訴求中似乎有些勉強而難以說服人。但是追溯這矛盾的來源,我們發現它源自於一個看似平凡卻又充滿玄機的宰制機制──交換價值。
交換價值的概念滲透在社會裡每一個領域中:在經濟上它是金錢,在語言上它是名聲,而在政治上它是權力。就哥斯大瓜那的歷史來說,歐洲人的入侵終結了印第安原住民的生產模式及文化,取而代之的是歐洲人的經濟社會體制。而歐洲人傳入的典型體制即是資本主義。資本主義當然就使得財富集中在「十分之一」的企業家和中產階級手中,廣大的勞工反而成了剝削的對象。這種現象在歐洲本就成了共產主義的催生者,而在哥斯大瓜那問題則更嚴重:因為在那裡財富不僅集中在以瑞博拉政黨為主的少數中產階級手中,同時這群財富擁有者都是歐洲移民。本質上歐洲移民所說的「國家」和廣大的混血兒、黑人、及原住民所談的「國家」就不同,而在面對白種移民將政權、經濟一把抓的情況下,那種無助、沮喪的心情也就很容易被蒙特羅的謊言所吸引。
正因這些歐洲移民又身兼資本家,此種雙重身份,使蒙特羅得以利用多數不滿情緒而發動革命,而這也正解釋為何他的革命宣傳中含有民族主義及共產主義兩種成份。但是蒙特羅畢竟不是真正為無產階級或弱勢種族奮鬥;相反的,他的反叛源自於「分贓不均」。原為瑞博拉政黨的將軍,蒙特羅覺得他沒有得到「應得的利益」。為了討回自身利益,他用人民利益來掩飾其自身野心。
於是,在利益交換過程中,個體不斷在思索如何累積本身的經濟資本或政治資本,而在這當中,「銀」成了哥斯大瓜那的最大公約數及共同利益。既然銀成為所有人認同之定值物,擁有銀山的古爾德也就被公推為「沙利哥」之王,進而從經濟到政治宰制這新獨立國家。
本文首先探討在資本主義生產模式及關係上,銀是如何被提升到共同交換標準之地位。其次談到語言領域中名聲和銀的同源性,並發現人們終究是以換取「作為金錢象徵的銀」為目的。最後談到在建構國家的過程中,想像的社區仍需要想像的價值來調解仲裁各個領域中的人際關係。而此時作為定值物的銀,不僅跳脫出經濟範疇,更成為政治及國家範疇中的定值之物。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6658
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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