Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6666
標題: 女性形象:伊塔羅·卡爾維諾冬夜旅人中之性別差異
Images of Women: Gender Difference in Italo Calvino''s If on a winter''s night a traveler.
作者: 歐惟華
Ou, Tina Wei-hua
關鍵字: gender difference;性別差異;images of women;language;text;ideology;女性形象;語言;文本;意識形態
出版社: 外國語文學系
摘要: 
Based upon the theoretical frame-work of the feminism, this thesis attempts to illuminate the male manipulation in Italo Calvino''s If on a Winter''s night a traveler. To elucidate the patriarchal myth of gender, this thesis will adopt mainly the critiques made by Kate Millett and Simone de Beauvoir to provide a theoretical background for the analysis of the novel.
In the first chapter of this thesis, I mean to explore the construction of gender difference by analyzing the culture in the representation and transformation of "masculinity" and "femininity." With a view to understanding more of the gender difference, I will at first give a summary of the two terms, "gender" and "sex." And then, I would like to discuss the stereotyped portraits and representations of women characters affected by the cultural concept of gender difference in literature. I will also make use of Images of Women Criticism as a basis to analyze the gender differences and, in particular, the stereotyped images of women in fictions by male authors.
In If on a winter''s night a traveler, Calvino explores the complex relationships between men and men, women and women, and men and women. In the second chapter, the relationships of the two main female characters, Ludmilla and Lotaria, with the other main male protagonists will be explored in particular. I will focus on the stereotyped depictions and portraits of the female protagonists in both the embedded story and the frame one, and examine the different positions occupied by men and women in discourse. I purpose to analyze the ways in which women are stereotyped, culturally dominated, and sexually objectified respectively.
The third chapter then extends the discussion to the textual relationship of the repressive male and the repressed female. Men perform their power through the reiterative sexual as well as textual domination over women. Through this process of reiteration in sex and in text, women have no choice but to conform to the patriarchal norms in this novel.
This thesis is expected to present a new direction for reading and understanding Calvino''s fiction and to offer some possible contributions to the study of sexuality and textuality between men and women in the novel, If on a winter''s night a traveler.

大部份有關冬夜旅人的評論皆著眼於作者與讀者的關係或寫作與閱讀間運作的過程。然而,不同於傳統以男性角色為出發點,本論文嘗試以女性主義的觀點並以女性角色為主軸,討論書中女性與男性角色以及女性與角色外作者的權力關係。
論文第一章首先簡述性別的定義,並且揭示在傳統文化,特別在文學的世界中不同性別所遭受不平等的對待。"性別"的意義簡而言之是社會結構所造成。 在社會建構的過程中男性優越與女性從屬的性別對峙即形成兩性間的社會關係。所以男女性別的關係劃分是互動但不平等的。 此兩極化的性別倫理,合法化了男性對於女性的權力與威勢。男子得以享用各式各樣的特權,而同樣的權利在女子方面卻遭剝奪。再者,介紹"女性形象批評"(Images of Women Criticism) 的起源、內涵和特色。 藉由對女性在文學中扮演角色的研究,使得女人開始認真的思考一些有關性別差異的問題,像是"女人到底是什麼"以及"女人到底是誰"等等的問題。
伊塔羅‧卡爾維諾在冬夜旅人一書中探討了女人與女人,男人與男人以及特別是男人與女人之間微妙與複雜的關係。本書的內容可以說是以天方夜譚 Arabian Nights為藍本,將內容分為框架故事 (frame stories) 與嵌入故事(embedded stories) 兩部份。藉由框架故事中男性讀者the male Reader 與女性讀者Ludmilla角色之間一種曖昧不明的互動與追逐,間接連貫了十部未完成的嵌入故事。在第二章和第三章,我將從嵌入故事與框架故事中的性別區別,反映出男女的不平等。我將以書中的女性讀者們the female Readers為主軸,尤其是Ludmilla 和Lotaria兩個女性角色,討論從文字以及語言的呈現下,女性讀者與男性主角們之間的性別差異與權力分配的問題,同時也藉由性別角色的呈現,重新思考文本中女性形象所呈現的意義。
卡爾維諾身為一位男性作家,在文本的論述中合法化了男子對於女子的權力與威勢。在他對女性角色的刻劃下,理想中的女性如同Ludmilla必須犧牲她們的自主權、慾望與壯志,以符合男性眼中天使班的形象。相對於Ludmilla的天使化身,卡爾維諾刻劃出不適當與使人嫌惡的女性主義角色Lotaria,來向傳統的父權威勢提出挑戰,對於父系社會形成脅迫。羅塔莉亞般 (Lotaria-like) 的女性角色,越過了女性特質的藩籬。她們拒成為附屬品,決意成就自我而擁有生存的意義。然而她們的下場卻是不受男性歡迎,甚至還被逐出以男性為主的論述空間。
從女性角色切入來分析伊塔羅·卡爾維諾 Italo Calvino 的作品,目的在於重新思考在書中的論述中,兩性互動所存在的一種既曖眛但又顯而易見的意識型態上的差異。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6666
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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