Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6739
標題: The One Virtue among the Many Values: Pope, Neoclassicism, and Satire
波普、新古典主義與諷刺:眾多價值中之一大德行
作者: 巫雅燕
Wu, Ya-yen
關鍵字: Satire;諷刺文學;Virtue;Neoclassicism;Romanticism;Golden Mean;價值;新古典主義;浪漫主義;中庸之道
出版社: 外國語文學系
摘要: 
The Augustan England was an august society in which the Puritans' moral heat was still there while the libertinism of the Restoration, followed by religious and political incertitude, the increasing wealth and prosperity, the party strife, the intermittent wars, etc., formed a neoclassical background for the flourishing of satire. As a neoclassical Augustan, Pope was a satirist and moralist whose life experience helped to mold his satirical inclination and whose poetical career showed his moral consciousness. Besides trying to revive the classical style and attitude, neoclassicists like Pope wished to uphold virtues while attacking vices and ridiculing follies. They advocated a good number of values, among which antiquity, rules, decorum, generality, order, moderation, restraint, reason, harmony, proportion, balance, correctness, artfulness, etc., were those often associated with neoclassicism. In examining some typical works of Pope's, however, we find Pope also recognized the importance of genius, nature, passion, and fancy, that is, the values often associated with romanticism. This fact leads us to the conclusion that Pope was actually a middle-of-the-roader believing in the doctrine of golden mean. For him the sense of moderation was the primary virtue. By logical reasoning it is capable of coordinating other values. From textual and critical evidence, moderation proves to be the one central virtue, too, among so many neoclassical values, which make up what Pope and other Augustans call good sense. Our ending remark is: Pope is a humanist seeking truth, like a romantic prophet, for mankind. And his ultimate truth might be: moderation is the golden means by which to achieve enduring human happiness and to create a golden time. With this understanding, one might hesitate to call him without modification a typical neoclassicist in the Age of Enlightenment.

十八世紀的英國是一個清教徒的嚴謹道德規範仍舊存在的社會。此時,一些重大的社會問題,如宗教上和政治上的不安定、與日俱增的財富和繁榮、黨派鬥爭、頻繁的戰爭等,促使新古典時期諷刺文學大為盛行。身為一位諷刺家及道德家,波普的生活經驗造就了他的諷刺創作,而他的詩人生涯更顯示出他的道德意識。除了復興古典的文體和觀念,新古典主義者在抨擊人類的愚蠢與邪惡時,也不忘褒揚許多和新古典主義有關的價值,如規則、合宜、普遍性、次序、中庸、克制、理性、和諧、均衡、正確、技巧等。然而,在探討波普的一些具有代表性的作品時,我們發現到他也重視一些與浪漫主義有關的價值,如天賦、自然、情感、和想像力。因此,我們可以推論出波普實際上是一位相信中庸之道的新古典主義作家。對他而言,中庸是最主要的一大德行。根據邏輯推理,中庸能夠調和其他的價值。而且從文本和批判性的證據來看,中庸確實是構成波普和其他同時期文學家所認為好見識之一大主要德行。我們的結論是:波普是一位為全人類尋求真理的人道主義者。而他的真理可能是:中庸是實現人類的幸福和創造一個全盛時代的最好方法。在這樣的了解之下,我們很難將波普全然歸類為極端的或是典型的新古典主義者。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6739
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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