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標題: 整合性有害生物防治方法之開發與應用
Development and Applications of Integrated Pest Control Techniques
作者: 施劍鎣
關鍵字: 應用研究;Flea Beetle;植物保護類;黃條葉蚤;趨光性;物理防治;誘殺設備;奈米塗料;鳳梨粉介殼蟲;生活史;物理防治;綜合防治;捕植微生物防治;福壽螺;殺螺劑;天然物質;皂素;粒劑;Phototaxis;Physical Control;Trapping Facility;Nano-Material;Dysmicocus brevipes (Cockreell);Life Cycle;Physical Control;Integrated Control;Predatious Mites;Micro-BioControl;Apple Snail;Molluscicide;Natural Plant Materials;Saponin;Granule
本計畫針對目前國內重要蟲害進行非農業化學藥劑防治技術之開發與應用上的研究。主要防治的對象包括有機農業中十字花科蔬菜的黃條葉蚤、網室木瓜栽培期間所易遭之葉蟎危害、鮮食鳳梨粉的介殼蟲,以及迫害生態與農作物甚鉅之福壽螺等四方面進行探討。由於防治對象各種作物的差異狀況必須因時因地置宜,在黃條葉蚤方面,配合網室施作與該蟲之生態行為的特性,我們擬已研發成功之奈米塗料作為阻隔黃條葉蚤跳離隔板之表面介質,期以該介質讓黃條葉蚤無法立足於隔板上而掉落所設計之誘殺設備。在網室木瓜之葉蟎危害方面,一方面、研發卵形捕植蟎之繁殖技術、了解飼育載具對捕植蟎族群數量及增殖率之影響;另一方面量化木瓜蟎害與病害損失、整合釋放溫氏捕植蟎,配合微生物結抗菌及增進植株生長勢等綜合栽培管理方法,除提高捕植蟎效果,取代化學藥劑防治葉蟎技術;並利用腐黃酸、枯草桿菌等製劑,配合捕植蟎生物防治葉蟎,大量減少化學藥劑之使用及提高作物保護效果百分比。在鳳梨粉介殼蟲方面,擬繼續完成整個鳳梨生育期之有害生物相調查與研究,並進一步評估各害蟲在鳳梨園之生態地位及分析主要害蟲之族群周年發生消長情形,再選擇危害最嚴重之鳳梨粉介殼蟲,進行生活史研究,並累積期生態資料;由於利用已知溫湯處理技術可在50 ℃和52 ℃處理8分鐘的試驗條件下,粉介殼蟲的平均死亡率可達95%以上的殺蟲效果最為理想,擬就品質上影響及最適之殺蟲條件進行更深入的探討。在福壽螺方面,擬就先前所確定天然無患子果實之皂素具有殺福壽螺之效果,繼續探討無患子、苦茶粉及苦楝油等植物之萃取物及上述綜合之組成物對福壽螺之生物毒效,以結合上述三種天然物質加工烘乾造粒為天然植物殺螺劑粒,並評估這些天然植物皂素對田中之蚯蚓及水中魚類等其它生物之毒性等環境影響評估。

This project focuses on four main pests to develop new control techniques to substitute application of traditional chemical pesticides. The target pests are the flea beetles (Phyllotreta striolata) on vegetables in organic farm, the spider mites on papaya fruits in net house, mealybug (Pseudococcidae) on fresh pineapples and golden apple snails in the rice field. Given that the target pests and the host plants are in different agricultural environment, the control methods for the pests are already carefully examined and our project for this year is going to seek the best situations for each of them without using traditional chemical pesticides. For the flea beetles, we already found suitable nano-materials for spraying on the surface of boundary plate to stop the beetles to escape. For the spider mites , we develop raising techniques for predacious mites to control spider mites on one hand, and we also apply Fuvics Acids and Bacillus subtilis to reduce using traditional pesticides. For the Pseudococcidae on fresh pineapples, the pest will be surveyed and investigated during all grow period of pineapple. Besides, this study make hot water treatment on pineapple fruit. Previous study has shown that the average fatality rate of Pseudococcidae was achieve to upwards of 94.5% by treating 8 minutes with 50 ℃ or 52 ℃ condition. In this year, the fitness condition of management will be tested, and the quality and preservation of pineapple fruit will be evaluated after hot-water treatment. For the golden apple snails, we will continue to investigate the extracts of soapberry, oil camellia powder and oil camellia oil to make a suitable composition as a botanical control agent. In addition, it is possible to use the dehydrated granules of the natural components to develop a formulation to control the golden apple snails. The toxicological effects to the earth worms and fresh fishes in the rice fields will be evaluated as well.
其他識別: 94農科-13.2.1-檢-B5(1)
Appears in Collections:研究計畫報告

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