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標題: Seasonal variation and spatial distribution of carbonaceous aerosols in Taiwan
作者: Chou, C.C.K.
Lee, C.T.
Cheng, M.T.
Yuan, C.S.
Chen, S.J.
Wu, Y.L.
Hsu, W.C.
Lung, S.C.
Hsu, S.C.
Lin, C.Y.
Liu, S.C.
關鍵字: secondary organic aerosol;airborne particulate matter;long-range;transport;alpha-pinene;chemical-composition;source apportionment;air-quality;pm2.5 mass;ace-asia;yields
Project: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
期刊/報告no:: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Volume 10, Issue 19, Page(s) 9563-9578.
To investigate the physico-chemical properties of aerosols in Taiwan, an observation network was initiated in 2003. In this work, the measurements of the mass concentration and carbonaceous composition of PM(10) and PM(2.5) are presented. Analysis on the data collected in the first 5-years, from 2003 to 2007, showed that there was a very strong contrast in the aerosol concentration and composition between the rural and the urban/suburban stations. The five-year means of EC at the respective stations ranged from 0.9 +/- 0.04 to 4.2 +/- 0.1 mu gC m(-3). In rural areas, EC accounted for 2-3% of PM(10) and 3-5% of PM(2.5) mass loadings, comparing to 4-6% of PM(10) and 4-8% of PM(2.5) in the urban areas. It was found that the spatial distribution of EC was consistent with CO and NO(x) across the network stations, suggesting that the levels of EC over Taiwan were dominated by local sources. The measured OC was split into POC and SOC counterparts following the EC tracer method. Five-year means of POC ranged from 1.8 +/- 0.1 to 9.7 +/- 0.2 mu gC m(-3) among the stations. It was estimated that the POM contributed 5-17% of PM(10) and 7-18% of PM(2.5) in Taiwan. On the other hand, the five-year means of SOC ranged from 1.5 +/- 0.1 to 3.8 +/- 0.3 mu gC m(-3). The mass fractions of SOM were estimated to be 9-19% in PM(10) and 14-22% in PM(2.5). The results showed that the SOC did not exhibit significant urban-rural contrast as did the POC and EC. A significant cross-station correlation between SOC and total oxidant was observed, which means the spatial distribution of SOC in Taiwan was dominated by the oxidant mixing ratio. Besides, correlation was also found between SOC and particulate nitrate, implying that the precursors of SOA were mainly from local anthropogenic sources. In addition to the spatial distribution, the carbonaceous aerosols also exhibited distinct seasonality. In northern Taiwan, the concentrations of all the three carbonaceous components (EC, POC, and SOC) reached their respective minima in the fall season. POC and EC increased drastically in winter and peaked in spring, whereas the SOC was characterized by a bimodal pattern with the maximal concentration in winter and a second mode in summertime. In southern Taiwan, minimal levels of POC and EC occurred consistently in summer and the maxima were observed in winter, whereas the SOC peaked in summer and declined in wintertime. The discrepancies in the seasonality of carbonaceous aerosols between northern and southern Taiwan were most likely caused by the seasonal meteorological settings that dominated the dispersion of air pollutants. Moreover, it was inferred that the Asian pollution outbreaks could have shifted the seasonal maxima of air pollutants from winter to spring in the northern Taiwan, and that the increases in biogenic SOA precursors and the enhancement in SOA yield were responsible for the elevated SOC concentrations in summer.
ISSN: 1680-7316
DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-9563-2010
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