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標題: 女性定位與創造力:論約翰‧福爾斯的《法國中尉的女人》
Female Identity and Creativity: A Study of John Fowles's The French Lieutenant's Woman
作者: 陳建明
Chen, Jian-ming
關鍵字: Dark Continent;黑暗大陸;femme fatale;female malady;patriarchal;speculum;sense of identity;authorship;creativity;危險女人;女人病;父系社會;內視鏡;認同感;作者身份;創造力
出版社: 外國語文學系
自從1860年代以來,大英帝國即不斷對外擴張領土,「黑暗大陸」(Dark Continent)─非洲便首當其衝成為其侵略的目標。值此同時,在國內約翰‧斯圖亞特‧米爾(John Stuart Mill)正為女權大力奔走之際,部分他的同胞也鍥而不捨想一窺女性這另一塊「黑暗大陸」。女性同胞因此被不當呈現、抹黑、甚或遭受粗暴的對待。約翰‧福爾斯(John Fowles)的小說《法國中尉的女人》(The French Lieutenant’s Woman)描寫的女性莎拉(Sarah)處境就是如此─男人一面倒地要醜化她。本篇論文藉由女性主義的觀點探討維多利亞時代女性如何被父權社會剝削及迫害,以及剖析為何父權社會自以為是且紆尊降貴地對待女性─將她們貶為「他者」(Other)。
本文包含緒論、正文、結論三個部分。筆者主要引用蕾貝卡‧史塔特(Rebecca Stott)、伊蓮‧蕭瓦特(Elaine Showalter)、珊卓拉‧吉伯特(Sandra Gilbert)及蘇珊‧古巴(Susan Gubar)等人的理論當我的立論依據。我使用這些理論來詳述當時普遍的男尊女卑現象,及女性如何在「父親的法規」(the Law of the Father)如火如荼的年代掙脫她既定命運的擺佈。
筆者在第一章首先援用史塔特對「危險女人」(femme fatale)的見解,以闡釋身處父權社會下的男人如何處心積慮想揭開並刺探女性神秘的面紗,但另一方面卻又懼之如蛇蠍般。後半段將用蕭瓦特的「女性疾病」(the female malady)理論化解『瘋狂=女性疾病』的迷思。她指出女性因先天性的生理結構較男性容易罹患精神性疾病,但主要還是後天社會環境與心理負擔等因素造成她們較易害病。
第二章約略將男女類比為鏡子與凹面鏡兩種光學儀器。鏡子理論源自於維吉尼亞‧吳爾芙(Virginia Woolf)─女人被動地將男人想要的映像反射回去。而凹面鏡理論由露絲‧伊西佳黑(Luce Irigaray)提出,它代表男人想主動探索女人身體結構的最佳利器。不過本章重點主要放在女性的創造力和認同上。傳統父權心態對婦女所要求的三從四德不僅大大壓縮女性的創作空間,更進一步打壓她們的自我認同,因此只有透過藝術創作女性才能當家作主並打造自己的屬性。小說女主角莎拉便藉著虛構自身的歷史與些許作戲─另類的藝術創作,終究達成自我實踐及獲致自我認同感。

Since the British Empire started to paint the map red in the 1860s, Africa, the Dark Continent, has borne the brunt of its invasion. Back home, at the same time that John Stuart Mill was campaigning for women's rights, some of his compatriots went to great length of exploring the biological Dark Continent of the female mind and body. The female was accordingly misrepresented, wrongly accused, or even manhandled. In John Fowles's The French Lieutenant's Woman, he describes the relationship between the sexes, a lop-sidedness in favor of the male. Predicated on the feminist approach, this thesis is meant to address such a problematic relationship in terms of a Victorian woman Sarah's exploitation and victimization by the patriarchal society and dissect the rationale behind its self-righteous and condescending treatment of her, which ineluctably relegates her to the Other.
Divided into three parts, this thesis cuts across an introduction, a main body of two chapters, and a conclusion. I bring into play as my theoretical background the theories of Rebecca Stott, Elaine Showalter, and Sandra Gilbert as well as Susan Gubar. These theories I harness to elaborate on the male domination and female subordination and how women can break the tyranny of their prescribed destiny in the Victorian era, when the Law of the Father reigns in full swing.
In Chapter One, I appropriate Stott's perspectives on femme fatales to demonstrate sustained paternal attempts at penetrating and dispersing the mist of mystery around the so-called “fatal woman” and why she is feared like the plague. At bottom, fatal woman as such is nothing but a man-constructed denomination created to facilitate men's exercise of scientific groping about her. Meanwhile, another focus of the chapter will be on demystifying the myth of “the female malady” theory, brought forward by Showalter, by claiming that nurture reinforces or retards nature, rather than vice versa.
The earlier part of the second chapter treats of men's and women's functions in Victorian society, likening men's to the function of a speculum meant to shed light on women's inner self, and women's to that of a mirror which forcedly glasses back men's desired image. This chapter is concerned chiefly with female creativity and identity. Under patriarchy and conventional mores, women's creative space is much compressed, still more their self-identity to which artistic creation subserves amply. Through creation of art, they are able to claim their authorship and further to define and forge their own identity. In Sarah's case, by virtue of “a fiction of her own” and some kind of playacting, she achieves self-actualization, clinching her sense of identity eventually.
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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