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標題: 葉慈《樓塔》中辨證美學之探究
An Enquiry into Yeats's Dialectical Aesthetics in The Tower
作者: 安學之
An, Peter
關鍵字: Yeats;葉慈;aesthetics;ideology;mythology;The Tower;dialectical;美學;意識型態;神話;樓塔;辯證
出版社: 外國語文學系
《樓塔》 (1928),一部充滿痛苦與矛盾但同時被葉慈和許多批評家認為是他最偉大的詩集,體現了詩人於亂世中對於個人、藝術、政治和歷史的反思。 他優美但尖銳的語言不但深刻地批判了愛爾蘭當時動蕩的政局與充斥的中產階級意識型態,更刺痛了許多心有所感的當代讀者。 葉慈透過對該詩集中詩作順序的刻意編排使整部作品呈現出精心設計的戲劇效果,象徵性地打破了歷史線性發展的原則並呈現出一種辯證式的美學。 事實上, 《樓塔》這本詩集可以說是詩人的一部有系統的美學論述:描述主體如何偏離自身,轉而由客觀世界回歸完整自我的過程。 因此,我此篇論文的目的即在逐步分析《樓塔》中的詩如何由〈航向拜占庭〉中康德式的唯心論主體出發,卻旋而轉變為〈樓塔〉中經驗論主體對客觀存在的無形崇高及〈內戰中的沉思〉及〈一九一九〉中歷史無情暴力的實際體驗,並在掙扎的主體即將陷入中產階級意識型態的虛假總體誘惑之際,如何透過 〈一個戲劇中的兩首歌〉,〈儷妲與天鵝〉,和〈艾德蒙‧杜拉可的一幅黑色人頭馬畫〉等詩向遠古神話求援以便重整現代破碎主體的一個複雜辯證過程。

English Abstract
The Tower (1928), a volume of poems full of bitterness and contradiction but considered by Yeats and many critics as the greatest work he has ever written, presents the poet's reflexive thinking about self, art, politics, and history in time of trouble. Yeats's graceful but acrimonious language not only deeply criticizes the turbulent political situation and the flooding bourgeois ideology of Ireland at his time but also stabs the hearts of some sympathetic readers nowadays. Through deliberately arranging the order of the poems in The Tower, Yeats manages to exhibit its exquisitely designed dramatic effects. His effort symbolically breaks the linear rule of historical progress and displays a kind of dialectical aesthetics. As a matter of fact, The Tower can be regarded as a systematic discourse of the poet's aesthetics: it depicts the process of how the subject deflects from itself, and then returns to the integrative self again from the objective world. The aim of this thesis is to analyze the poems step by step to see the dialectical process of how it commences from the idealistic subject of Kantian aesthetics in "Sailing to Byzantium," and then immediately turns to the empirical subject which undergoes the experience of the formless sublimity of the objective existence in "The Tower" and the relentless violence of history in "Meditations in Time of Civil War" and "Nineteen Hundred and Nineteen." Finally, I will examine how the poet evokes the ancient mythologies through "Two Songs from a Play," "Leda and the Swan," and "On a Picture of a Black Centaur by Edmund Dulac" to reconstruct the modern subject from its fragmental state when the struggling subject is on the point of falling into the lure of the false totality of bourgeois ideology.
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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