Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6884
標題: Ryder''s "Stream of Unconsciousness" : A Psychoanalytic Reading of Ishiguro''s The Unconsoled
賴得的「無意識流」: 石黑一雄《無慰藉者》的精神分析
作者: 蔡幸靜
Tsai, Hsing-Ching
關鍵字: psychoanalytical theories;精神分析;alienation;surrealism;stream of unconsciousness;疏離;超現實;無意識流
出版社: 外國語文學系所
摘要: 
This thesis aims to explore the alienated individual in Ishiguro's The Unconsoled by applying psychoanalytical theories. The Unconsoled is Ishiguro's surrealist work: It uses the “stream of unconsciousness” narrative mode and “the language of dream” to render the theme of the novel: the fragility of the human spirit, the alienation of the individual, and the emptiness of modern society.
The protagonist's “stream of unconsciousness” runs throughout the novel. His four-day-trip is like four musical movements. Ishiguro systemically contrives an overflow of Ryder's mentality and takes a further step to disclose Ryder's expectation, perceptions, and feelings about his past, present and future. Regarding The Unconsoled as a dream text is to mix the Modernist's stream of consciousness with Sigmund Freud's theory of the unconscious. Ryder's dream comes from his repressed desire or his lack of satisfaction. In his unconscious stream we can find an individual alienated in a modern society, his soul lost and uconsoled.
Employing Freud's theory of the unconscious and his interpretation of dreams, we find we can explain the illogical plot details and disclose Ryder's desire and anxiety. We find the unconscious kindly warps, conceals, and softens the meanings of one's dreams and evades shocks, disturbances and censorship by condensation or displacement. Ryder indeed fulfills his wish by dreaming. He has passed Lacan's mirror stage and has begun to identify himself with the image he sees in the “mirror” or the world: In truth, his desire is constantly substituted by an “object petit a,” which is now replaced by music. But such a replacement is just an empty replacement. After all, he as well as all others (who are no other than his projections) cannot get any consolation. Even music can only serve as their common temporary goal or imagined way of consolation.

本論文運用心理分析來探討英藉日裔作家石黑一雄《無慰藉者》的作品內涵。《無慰藉者》一書乃石黑創新巨作,採用詭譎奇異的「超現實」形式及「無意識流」中夢的語言,藉以呼應《無慰藉者》中的主題:人格精神碎裂,人性的孤獨疏離感,及現代社會的空洞性。
主角賴得的「無意識流」貫穿整本小說,其四天之行程,宛如四個夢境般的樂章。石黑巧妙系統性地描繪賴得內心無限流竄的無意識,進而揭露主角內心對過去、現在及未來的期待、認知與感受。「無意識流」是筆者結合現代主義的「意識流」及佛洛依德的「無意識」所形成的術語。整本小說是賴得一連串的夢境,也是主角心內壓抑己久的無意識所匯集而成的感情激流,它抒發孤獨疏離感的「無慰藉」心聲。
運用佛洛依德「夢的解析」及「無意識流」來說明文本中的非邏輯性,同時揭露主角的慾念及焦慮,說明主角如何運用「凝縮」及「轉移」來規避他內心深處潛藏的創傷,及顯示願夢的達成。再運用拉岡的「鏡像理論」進一步探討人與生俱來的孤獨疏離感及慾望的形成。在小說中,每個角色都無法得到慰藉:原初想透過他人來求取安慰,但一一失敗,最後唯有透過音樂為慰藉的「客體小a」,以求心靈的抒發。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6884
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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