Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6903
標題: Domestic Dominace in D. H. Lawrence's Sons and Lovers
論勞倫斯《兒子與情人》中的內在掌控
作者: 林隆諺
Lin, Lung-yen
關鍵字: 兒子與情人;Sons and Lovers;勞倫斯;新歷史主義;文本與歷史的交會;宰制;D. H. Lawrence;New Historicism;intersection of the text and history;Dominace
出版社: 外國語文學系
摘要: 
無庸置疑,勞倫斯在二十世紀初文壇佔有一席重要的地位。在其初期小說中最廣為人討論的則是兒子與情人一書。一般咸認為兒子與情人是勞倫斯依其本身的真實生活為材所寫成的半自傳小說,而多以心理分析或馬克斯主義來檢視其中的戀母情結及書中所展現的階級問題。而本論文主要採用新歷史主義的觀點,討論文本與歷史的交會,並藉以瞭解勞倫斯的歷史觀,及文本自傳表面所隱含的歷史真相,希望藉此獲得一較為宏觀的社會歷史觀點。雖然勞倫斯寫作的過程以及成名都在二十世紀,但在兒子與情人一書中所論及的是他最熟悉的幼時及青年階段,也就是維多利亞時期與現代的交會點。在這世紀轉折點,勞倫斯以他優雅的筆觸透過家庭生活的描述,傳遞出當代的歷史及權力交替。看莫瑞太太如何掌控全家的過程登基為后,同時也顯示了當時新興的中產階級如何透過意識型態國家機器影響全體人民,進而打敗其他競爭勢力奪取宰制的權力。經由家庭與教育兩種最有力的機制,莫瑞太太牢牢掌控住他的兒子們,如同國家透過同樣的方式控制臣民並使之自願順從,毫不懷疑及反抗。然而,如同雷蒙‧威廉斯所說,在宰制文化之外必定存有其他不同的殘餘或新興文化企圖反抗甚至奪取大權。在成功排除莫瑞先生於家庭生活之外後,對莫瑞太太來說,所謂威脅就是企圖將她兒子從她身邊奪走的女性。莫瑞太太與那些被她控制的兒子們可以說是攜手一一擊退這些外來的文化侵襲,再次成功保衛了家庭以及國家的完整不可侵犯性。但人難免一死,隨著莫瑞太太的重病以及死亡,是否意味著她也正逐漸退出他兒子保羅的心中,不再佔有一席之地?或是她的死亡只是肉體的消逝,在他兒子來說其實帶來深沈的悲傷及更強烈的羈絆呢?這正也是新歷史主義中最具爭議的話題:是否能夠有真正的反抗?在兒子與情人書中結論證明了,雖然保羅表面上已經能接受母親逝去的事實並且準備過他自己的新生活,但仔細閱讀可發現其實他所謂的新生活只是母親願望的延伸,他仍然活在母親強大的影響及陰影之下。在母親及國家的宰制之下,反抗的可能性已全然消失。

It is generally consented that D. H. Lawrence is one of the most prominent writers in the early twentieth century, and, among all his earlier novels, Sons and Lovers is undoubtedly the most discussed one. Most critics believe that Sons and Lovers is the semi- autobiographical novel that is written by Lawrence on the basis of his real life, and, therefore, psychoanalytic or Marxist theories are often applied to the exegesis of this novel so as to examine the Oedipal complex or class conflict revealed in it. My elaboration on this novel, yet, would adopt the New Historicist ideas to inspect the intersection of the text and history, the historicism of Lawrence himself, and the implied historical truth in the superficially biographical form, in the hope of having a broader sociohistoical point of view.
Though Lawrence wrote and achieved his fame both in the twentieth century, the time setting of Sons and Lovers was situated in his most familiar child and youth age, that is, at the turn of Victorian and early modern period. At this transitional point, Lawrence, through his brilliant skill, creates a vivid picture on the family life of the Morels, and further implicitly expresses his thoughts about the shift of contemporary history and power. Seeing how Mrs. Morel gains control over the whole household and establishes her position as the queen, we are meanwhile observing how the burgeoning middle-classes affect people of all classes with the aid of the Ideological State Apparatuses, defeating other competing forces, and then seize the domination over the state. Mrs. Morel instills her ideas and values into her sons through the most basic institute, the family-school couple, and grasps them firmly in her hands; similarly, the state makes use of exactly the same mechanism to hail individuals into subjects who would act submissively without doubt and dissidence. However, as Raymond Williams has argued, in addition to the dominant, there must exist at the same time the residual and the emergent cultures that could be trying to oppose and even threaten the dominance of the ruling class. After Mrs. Morel successfully excludes Mr. Morel from the family life, the so-called threats to her are the girls who attempt to cut the connection between her and her sons. Eventually, the mother and the sons under her influence join hand by hand exorcising these heretical aliens, and preserve the divine territorial integrity of the family as well as the state. Since everyone must meet his or her doom, does the irremediable illness and death of Mrs. Morel mean that she is gradually withdrawing from her son, Paul's mind and gives back his due freedom? Or, does her death simply signify the physical departure and, one the other hand, leave her son the acute grief and a stronger emotional bond? This is also the most contentious question that is being vehemently debated among scholars of different disciplines in the New Historicism: Is there a genuine opposition? The concluding chapter of Sons and Lovers demonstrates that though seemingly able to accept the death of his mother and ready to set about a new life of his own, Paul, as a closer reading shows, is still struggling under the overwhelming authority and gigantic shadow of his mother, for his new life is actually the extension of Mrs. Morel's will. The possibility of genuine and effective subversion, under the domination of the omnipresent and omnipotent Mother and State, is completely eradicated.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6903
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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