Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6914
標題: 亨利•詹姆士《金杯》中的象徵經濟
Symbolic Economies in Henry James''s The Golden Bowl
作者: 陳櫻珊
Chen, Ying-shan
關鍵字: 象徵經濟;symbolic economies;資本主義邏輯;凝視;中空點;延異;capitalist logic;gaze;void;differance
出版社: 外國語文學系
摘要: 
假如經濟,是一種能量的隱喻,經濟的動力特性則來自於它內部的交換邏輯。利益、慾望及語言的交換構成《金杯》中四個主角間的權力關係。在資本主義社會中,個人主體性的建立就是商品進入市場的過程。小說一開始,the Prince 思考他的歷史定位;同時也思考著他在婚姻市場的可交換性。倫敦街頭一景即是他的鏡像時期。在此時空中,認同及疏離同時建構他的分裂主體。鏡像時期乃是根基於凝視原則;在凝視的過程中,主體化及客體化同時運作。凝視者把所見轉化為慾望客體;同時成為可慾望的主體。當the Prince 所凝視的客體是“在過去羅馬的我”,the Prince經由自我客體化,建立主體性。
當凝視已經進入慾望交換系統,凝視的眼,不再是運作觀看的官能之眼,而是象徵之眼;象徵之眼此時已被社會系統教導如何觀看。更確切的說,凝視者所實踐的並不是自己的慾望,而是整個象徵系統的慾望。透過幻想,方知如何慾望; Charlotte在the Prince不段重複地凝視下,不但是破碎的拼貼,更被想像為金幣影像。正因無法完全成為能慾的主體,the Prince 需要重複地凝視Charlotte,並從中建構象徵系統慾望的路徑。
小說中的婚姻市場同時也是文化市場;其中交換的文化商品即是歐洲歷史性及美國貨幣。在此歷史的概念如何被人類主體濫用為身分認同的工具將會探討。 歐洲歷史主義及美國資本主義呈現文化差異;然而,這樣的差異是透過交換系統的同質化而產生。產品需要被同質化為商品形式;藉此,商品彼此分化;進而呈現商品內容的差異。
不間歇的交換擴展市場規模。為了便於管理及效率,黃金為一般等質物 (the general equivalent),統合商品秩序。對Goux 而言,相同邏輯也運用在倫理、慾望及語言市場;父親、陽具及理法代表一般等質物,鞏固象徵系統。在這本小說中,Adam Verver 以父之名,規範人倫關係。如同陽具的存在源於祂的不在, Adam Verver 的全能來自他的無能。Adam Verver被形容成嬰兒王;搖籃及墳墓極端的意像暗示著:生與死互為模擬 (parody)。Adam Verver不在前進的時間架構中被消耗,而是脫離了常軌,僵在凍結的片刻 (the frozen moment)。
最後一景是開始的結局 (the opening closure),因為最後結局不會,也不將到來。在 the Prince對Maggie 說:我無視於物除了你,Maggie 湧進 the Prince的懷中,並轉化成為他凝視,及象徵系統慾望的中空點。在最後一景中,交換延異。透過延異,時間與空間擴展。所能見的,只有凝結時刻的痕跡,及 Henry James如何慾望他“理想的女人”。
整個布爾喬亞社會由“想像等值”(the imaginary equivalence)這樣的〝意識形態幻想”(the ideological fantasy)所建構。沒有“想像等值”,交換行為停止;市場無法運作。然而,同時卻是“不均等”(inequivalence)形成了市場中的權力關係及動力。當勞力、商品、金錢及資本建構資本主義邏輯,這些元素同時也都表達了象徵界中的價值。 Lacan以象徵界(the symbolic)、想像界(the imaginary)及真實界(the real)三個面向去思考“存在”(the being)。假如資本主義,做為思考客體,可被想像成一個複雜的存在,小對體(objet petit a)作為真實界的價值 (the value of the real),植入象徵系統內部核心操控實際運作。假使金杯象徵知識、布爾喬亞功利,甚至是一統性,它內部不曾出現也不曾消失的裂痕(the crack)盤旋整個象徵系統。
本文分為三章。第一章以Marx的商品理論、Lacan的鏡像時期,及 Goux的象徵經濟,說明主體性的形成如何規循著一種資本主義邏輯。第二章說明交換原則如何規範小說中的婚姻、文化、及慾望市場。第三章探討金杯中的裂痕,及其本身為資本主義邏輯內部矛盾的一種隱喻。

As “a metaphor of energy,” economy is driven by its inner logic of exchange. The exchange of interest, desire and language enacts the power relation in The Golden Bowl. In the capitalist society, how human subject formulates subjectivity is similar to how commodity gets into the market. The scene of London Street is the Prince's mirror stage in which identification as well as alienation constitutes his subjectivity. The mirror stage, driven by gaze, is a locus where objectification and subjectivization simultaneously function. By transforming what is seen into the object of desire, the gazing agent becomes the subject who can desire. As the object the Prince gazes at is “the I in the past Rome,” the Prince enacts subjectivization through self-objectification.
Since gaze operates in the exchange system of desire, it is not the biological eye of seeing but the symbolic eye that constitutes “I.” As the symbolic eye has been taught how to gaze, the desire that gazing subject realizes is the desire of the Other. Desire requires the mediation of fantasy; under the Prince's repetitive gaze, Charlotte is fantasized as the pastiche of fragments and the gold image, which formulates the route of the Other's desire.
In this novel, the marriage market is also the cultural market. “European historicism” and “American capitalism” represent cultural difference. However, this difference is given by the homogenization of exchange system. Only when products are homogenized into the commodity form can commodities differentiate from each other. The exchange system enacts both homogenization and differentiation.
With incessant exchanges, commodity relation extends. For efficient regulation, gold as the general equivalent thus comes into existence. For Goux, the father, the phallus and the logo are the general equivalents that respectively regulate the ethical, desire and language system. In The Golden Bowl, Adam Verver in the Name of the Father regulates human relations. As the presence of the phallus results from its absence, the omnipotence of Adam Verver comes from his impotence. Adam Verver is represented as the infant king; the extreme images of cradle and tomb suggest the paradox between birth and death. Rupturing from the progressive dimension of time, Adam Verver is conditioned at the frozen moment.
The last scene is the opening closure which defers the final resolution of equal exchange. After the Prince declares to Maggie: “I see nothing but you,” Maggie plunges into the Prince's embrace and turns into the inner void of the Prince's gaze, and that of the desire of the Other. In the last scene, exchange is in deferment through which time and space expand. What is left is only the traces of frozen moments and how Henry James desires for his “ideal woman.”
The whole bourgeois society is sustained by the ideological fantasy, namely, the imaginary equivalence; without it, market ceases to function. However, it is at the same time the inequivalence that triggers the power relation and the dynamics of market. While labor, commodity, money and capital constitute the capitalist logic, they are all the expressions of symbolic values. Lacan categorizes “the being” in terms of the symbolic, the imaginary, and the real; if capitalism, as the object of speculation, can be imagined as complicated, the Lacanian objet petit a, as the value of the real, positions in the inner core of the onto-theological system of capitalism. If the golden bowl symbolizes knowledge, the bourgeois utility and even onto-theological Oneness, the neither present nor absent crack hovers the whole symbolic order.
This thesis is divided into three parts: Chapter I gives a theoretical frame of Marx's commodity theory, Lacanian mirror stage and Goux's concept. Chapter II illustrates how the logic of exchange regulates the marriage, desire, and cultural market in this novel. Chapter III analyzes the crack in the golden bowl and its significance as the metaphor of the inner contradiction of this capitalist logic.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6914
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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