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Residue of the Idealism: A Critical Analysis on Fantasy, Fascism and Everyday Life in Ishiguro''s The Remains of the Day
石黑一雄的名著《長日將盡》中的男主角史蒂文無疑是典型的英國總管。 他忠誠‚勤奮和懷念帝國偉業的態度使許多學者傾向把此角色當作分析大歷史─從二次大戰到蘇伊士運河事件─的最佳切入點, 認為史蒂芬的一生無疑反映出大英帝國的實況, 都是從興盛邁入黯淡的衰敗。
然而, 石黑一雄本人卻認為史蒂芬的角色應從個人出發點分析, 研究其個性與心理, 而非單純當作反映歷史的實例。 應此, 我將從心理學的角度出發, 首先以周雷的理論為主, 分析史提芬的思想, 並不是單純的愛國主義, 而是他在光榮與理想的言詞中, 隱藏著法西斯主義的陰影。 了解國族主義與法西斯的差異後, 我將以齊傑克的理論為輔繼續探討法西斯思想如何運作在史提芬的心靈裡, 使他一生幾乎陷入一種虛幻的理想─追求尊嚴─而忽略了病危的老父和肯鄧小姐的感情。 最後, 從拉費柏的主張, 我將指出這種法西斯意識形態如何使史蒂芬陶醉於大歷史的光榮, 而忽略了個人的每日生活,進而造成自己的終生遺憾。 然而在最後一部分, 與許多研究者悲觀論調不同的是, 從拉費柏的人道一角度切入, 史蒂芬無疑開始發現每日生活的重要性, 研究戲謔等日常活動以增進的技巧。 這也是為何我主張史蒂芬不只是法西斯意識形態控制下的殖民主體, 而已開始了解人性的重要,進而思考自己的生活意義與方式。
Kazuo Ishiguro, in his distinguished novel The Remains of the Day, gives vivid descriptions of the story in which there is a man named Stevens whose honored past doesn't suppress his regretful present. Consequently, this paper tends to give possible resolutions to Stevens' problems─his relationship with Miss Kenton, his loyalty to Lord Darlington and, most of all, his definition of the word “dignity”. In order to realize why Stevens is such a person with certain personality, we should locate the big Other exerting tremendous influence on him. Therefore, this paper aims to figure out how moral value dignity becomes the big Other, as the “Law” in the symbolic order. This paper, divided into four main sections, focuses on two fundamental terms─“fantasy” as well as “fascism” in order to resolve Stevens' problem. First of all, this paper, based on theory of Rey Chow, will explain why this mysterious power interpreting Stevens' subject is a mechanism of projection called “fascism”. Then, this paper is going to employ Zizek's concept of psychoanalysis to illustrate the relationship between the big Other and fantasy. Furthermore, by using Lacan's idea of “Law and regulation”, this paper will show how fascism not only exists in the position as the big Other but also transfers into the “object a” (the small other) desired by Stevens' subject. Unlike ordinary people who do right things to observe the “Law”, Stevens is longing for the “Law” itself. As a result, he often asks question like “what does dignity means?” Last but not least, this paper will examine the consequence resulted from the obsession with the value of dignity. That is, when focusing on the grand historical event and the spirit of dignity, Stevens obviously ignores his everyday life. For Henri Lefebvre, everyday life is one's daily practice including all human relations and activities─comradeship, friendship as well as love. With the articulation of Lefebvre's theory on everyday life, one can realize why Stevens assumes a militant attitude toward his public life while disregarding the possible affairs with Miss Kenton. In the conclusion, this paper would also figure out that Stevens, though taken as the stereotype colonized and cultivated by the moral law of dignity, finally grabs the moment when sitting on the pier, beginning to realize that bantering (as a common activity happens in everyday life) is not only a skill but a “key to human warmth.”
Key Words: big Other, object a, fantasy, nationalism, fascism, Law, everyday life.
|Appears in Collections:||外國語文學系所|
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