Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6958
標題: Nothing More to Want?: The Ethics of Choice in Henry James's The Ambassadors
亨利•詹姆斯《奉史記》中史崔哲的選擇倫理
作者: 余毓淳
Yu, Yu-chun
關鍵字: 選擇;choice;倫理;凝視;實在界;他者;拉康;ethics;gaze;The Real;The Other;Lacan
出版社: 外國語文學系
摘要: 
《奉史記》 (The Ambassadors) 中,史崔哲 (Strether) 洞察巴黎事物的過程 (process of vision),影響他最後返回美國的決定。史崔哲在視覺上再現他者 (others) 的經驗,超乎過去的生活想像,是一種無以名狀的恐懼。在法國鄉間靜謐的河流上,史崔哲看到一隻小舟,自河灣處轉過來,不急不徐進入他的眼簾。他不僅看見維安妮夫人 (Madame de Vionnet) 和查德 (Chad) 親密出遊景象,也看見自己的欲望 (desire) 與匱乏 (lack)。可以理解的是,這個事件將影響史崔哲的心理狀況;弔詭的是,史崔哲似乎不想豐饒他已是荒涼的生命,轉而放棄一切。本論文以此為靈感,檢視看與被看的過程如何影響「棄絕」之於史崔哲的生命意義。
近來西方倫理學 (ethics) 與精神分析之間有著內在的聯繫,旨在討論快樂與欲望滿足的可能性。拉康 (Lacan) 曾說:「不要放棄自己的欲望」,指的就是當主體 (subject) 陷入一種進退兩難的困境,掙扎在他者 (the Other) 需求和自我欲望當中,選擇所依循的倫理根據。《奉史記》中,不管在伍勒特 (Woollett) 或在巴黎,史崔哲的自我意識皆被俘虜於他者的欲望中 (the Other’s desire)。不論是成就一個「大使」責任,或以幻想 (fantasy) 編織巴黎生活,皆可能只是一種錯誤的自我認知 (misrecognition) 。因此,當史崔哲可於金錢、婚姻、巴黎社交生活中做一個約定俗成的快樂選擇時,他選擇放棄這一切快樂的事,以避免自我異化及疏離。
本論文的緒論簡介亨利•詹姆斯《奉史記》的靈感來源,解釋論文中將會引用的拉康精神分析語彙:何謂object-petit-a (拉康認為,object-petit-a無法被譯為任何語言,它是一種類似代數的符號)、他者 (Other)、及超乎經驗範疇的「實在界」(Real)。第一章從「凝視」 (gaze) 作為「欲望對象」 (object-petit-a) 談起,分析主體如何為外在注視所掌控,因而產生焦慮 (anxiety) 和變態式欲望 (the perverse desire) ,眼睛作為一知覺器官,不只是快樂的來源,同時也是恐懼。第二章分析史崔哲的歐洲經驗。「觀視驅力」 (scopic drive) 影響主體對於真實 (truth) 的探求;所有史崔哲在巴黎遭遇的事物,皆反映出真實並非存在於單一的意義追尋,而是不斷映照在瞻前顧後的思維中。知識作為了解世界和自我的工具,有其侷限,史崔哲須在與另一個欲望客體 (object) 接觸的經驗中,重整現實。第三章試圖以三個面向銓釋史崔哲的選擇。第一,這是一個延緩殘酷現實、延宕欲望滿足的決定。第二,史崔哲堅稱,這是一個具有道德準確性的決定。第三,本質上,這絕對是個消極、宣告放棄一切的決定。本文以康德的責任標準 (Kantian duty),和薩德變態式的堅持 (Sadean perversity) ,討論史崔哲一體兩面的欲望,呈現主體陷於倫理困境中,所做選擇的複雜性。

In The Ambassadors, Lambert Strether's vision in Paris is a process of watching and being watched. His visual representation of others can be read as an encounter with something repressed and unrepresented in his past life. In the French countryside, a boat carrying Chad and Madame de Vionnet runs into Strether's ken. He sees not only the picture of intimacy but also his own lack and desire. Obviously, this event partly reflects and affects Strether's psychic situation; equivocally, it seems that Strether does not want to change his desolate life and chooses to renounce everything. This thesis intends to examine the dynamics of Strether's desire as it is revealed in the process of vision so as to explain why he chooses to renounce everything toward the end of the novel.
Since the aim of ethics is to explore the possibility of attaining happiness and satisfying desire, ethics is to some extent correlative to the field of psychoanalysis. “Do not give up on your desire” is the ethical motto Lacan gives to the subject who falls into the struggle between the Other's desire and his own. In The Ambassadors, Strether is totally alienated from himself by serving as an ambassador for Woollett. Even in Paris, Strether defines himself through fantasy. Whether to be an ambassador or to have a life fantasy in Paris, Strether's recognition is possibly a misrecognition haunted by the Other's desire. Thus when he can choose money, marriage, and life fantasy, he gives up everything in order to avoid self-alienation. Strether takes this painful, cruel and inhuman act in order to be himself.
In Introduction, the germ theme of The Ambassadors is discussed and Lacan's psychoanalytical terms─“object-petit-a,” “the Other,” and “the Real”─are briefly explained. In Chapter One, gaze as an object a is discussed to analyze how a subject is checked by the outside gaze existing between the eye and the world he sees. In fact, being the source both of pleasure and pain, the eye produces not only perverse desire but also anxiety. Chapter Two provides a detailed interpretation of Strether's “process of vision” influenced by the scopic drive. This chapter centers on Strether's visual representation of the Parisian others, which not only shows the ambiguity of “truth,” but also is an encounter with the unnameable Real that reveals the limits and limitations of Strether's “knowledge.” In Chapter Three, I try to interpret Strether's choice from three points of view. First, it is a delayed choice that postpones the presence of reality and the satisfaction of desire. Second, in words of Strether, it is a choice “to be right.” Third, essentially, it is a negative choice that intends to give up everything. Through the Lacanian imaginary couple of Kant and Sade, Strether's duty and perversity are studied to reveal the complexity of choice at the ethical moment.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/6958
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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