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標題: Mirror / Mirage: Chaucer's Use of the Mirror Metaphor in Troilus and Criseyde and The Merchant's Tale
鏡中影 / 幻影:論喬叟的<卓勞士與葵西妲>和<商人的故事>中的鏡子隱喻
作者: Liao, Mei-hui
關鍵字: 鏡子;mirror;隱喻;metaphor
出版社: 外國語文學系
本論文試圖探討喬叟在<卓勞士與葵西妲>和<商人的故事>中如何使用鏡子隱喻彰顯基督教對於人認知不完美的主張。受限於當時技術與材質的不足,喬叟時代的鏡子的映照能力並不好,模糊不清且影像扭曲變形;喬叟善用鏡子來比喻人認知上的有限與謬誤,它如同光透過玻璃產生折射時所產生的光影,如Januarie對May的痴迷,及Troilus對Criseyde的深情在在都反映著人類識見的局限。第一章序論簡介歐洲古代、中古時期的鏡子製造技術以及其於英國的發展歷史。嘗試探討鏡子在西方文明中所賦予的意涵。二則說明在喬叟的時代,鏡子的製造因受到技術的限制,所呈現的影像晦暗不清,甚至是扭曲的,與現代鏡子明亮照人的功能差異甚大。三則探討中古時期的基督教對光學理論傳播與鏡子製造技術的貢獻。其中光學理論的研究,有許多被中古時期的基督教教士用來詮釋人的不完美及因識見不足所產生的偏執。第二章探討喬叟在<卓勞士與葵西妲>中所使用的鏡子的隱喻。Troilus與Januarie一樣,在其心鏡中投射出理想的愛人。由於Troilus的心受到了慾念的遮蔽,使得自己的心智受阻。或許喬叟企圖彰顯人的認知能力有限的問題,因此在故事中刻意安排鏡子隱喻。透過Troilus的心中鏡,讀者或許可以看到上帝的愛超越了人間情。第三章探討喬叟在<商人的故事>中所用的鏡子隱喻。何以故喬叟描述 Januarie的心繁忙有如市集中的一面鏡子,不斷投射出他心目中理想妻子的身影。喬叟或許意圖藉由這個鏡子的比喻來點出Januarie對婚姻的幻想與盲點。這樣的比喻正點出故事的結果與主角的期待相反。再則說故事的商人對婚姻的失望與不信任,恰好與Januarie對婚姻的憧憬相反。他們唯利是圖的人生觀豈不是另一種盲點?結論總結喬叟在作品中所用的鏡子隱喻如何受到時代背景影響,展現出富宗教性與哲學性的文學意涵。

This thesis aims to deal with Chaucer's use of the mirror metaphor in Troilus and Criseyde and The Merchant's Tale, and to analyze how Chaucer uses it in his works to reinforce the Christian beliefs in human imperfection. Chaucer is good at using figurative mirror to point out the limitations of human perception. The figurative use of the mirror suggests Troilus's misconception about Criseyde and Januarie's illusion of May. Chapter One is a brief account of the mirror history, especially the material mirror before and in Chaucer's time. Because of the limitations of medieval technology, a mirror in Chaucer's time would have been small, of polished metal or convex (if made of glass), and more importantly, the images shown would have been shadowy, darkened, dull, and transitory. In Chaucer's time, the scientific understanding of light, mirror, and optics were mainly disseminated by the clergy. The clergymen's study of the medieval optical theories is applied to explicate human imperfection and the poor quality of man's vision and used to explain man's paranoia, caused by man's lack of full knowledge. Chapter Two deals with Chaucer's use of the mirror metaphor in Troilus and Criseyde. Troilus, like Januarie, forms an image of his ideal lover in the mirror of his mind. Chaucer uses the mirror metaphor to suggest the problems of human perception. Through Troilus's mind mirror, Chaucer shows us how obliquely Troilus sees his earthly love. After all, for all Christians, heavenly love appraises much more higher than earthly love. Chapter Three discusses Chaucer's use of the mirror metaphor in The Merchant's Tale. The distorted image of May in Januarie's mind mirror ironically corresponds with the shadowy, darkened, and dull images in the metal mirror he put at the marketplace. Chaucer describes how Januarie's mind works as a mirror busily reflects the ambiguous images of his ideal wife. Januarie, like a real medieval mirror, is imperfect by default. The Merchant's disappointment and distrust in marriage stand in a sharp contrast with Januarie's vanity in choosing a perfect wife. The Conclusion chapter argues that a historical study of the medieval authorities of theology, rhetorics and optics on vision and images may offer us useful informations and resources to better understand the visual quality of Chaucer's works.
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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