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標題: 應用於數位浮水印之籬笆知情嵌入法效能分析
Performance Analysis for Trellis-Based Informed Embedding in Digital Watermarking
作者: 周彥宇
Jou, Yen-Yu
關鍵字: digital watermarking;數位浮水印;informed embedding;data hiding;知情嵌入;資料隱藏
出版社: 電機工程學系所
引用: [1] J. A. Bloom, I. J. Cox, T. Kalker, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, M. L. Miller, and C. B. S. Traw, "Copy protection for digital video," Proc. IEEE (Special Issue on Identification and Protection of Multimedia Information), vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 1267-1276, Jul. 1999. [2] D. Boneh and J. Shaw, "Collusion-secure fingerprinting for digital data," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1897-1905, 1998. [3] D. Kundeur and D. Hatzinakos, "Digital watermarking for telltale tamper proofing and authentication," Proc. IEEE, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 1167-1180, Jul. 1999. [4] F. Bartolini, A. Tefas, M. Barni, and I. Pitas, "Image authentication techniques for surveillance applications," Proc. IEEE, vol. 89, no. 10, pp. 1403-1418, Oct. 2001. [5] E. Martinian and G. W. Wornell, "Authentication with distortion constraints," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, pp. 17-20, 2002. [6] I. J. Cox, M. L. Miller, and J. A. Bloom, Digital Watermarking, New York: Morgan Kaufmann, 2001. [7] M. H. M. Costa, "Writing on dirty paper," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 29, pp. 439-441, 1993. [8] M. L. Miller, G. J. DoAerr, and I. J. Cox, "Applying informed coding and embedding to design a robust high-capacity watermark," IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 792-807, Jun. 2004. [9] P. Moulin and R. Koetter, "Data-hiding codes," Proc. IEEE, vol. 93, no. 12, pp. 2083-2126, Dec. 2005. [10] M. L. Miller, G. J. DoAerr, and I. J. Cox, "Dirty-paper trellis codes for watermark," IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, vol. 2, pp. II-129-II-132, 2002. [11] I. J. Cox, M. L. Miller, and A. McKellips, "Watermarking as communications with side information," Proc. IEEE, vol. 87, pp. 1127-1141, Jul. 1999. [12] Y. Sun, Y. Yang, A. D. Liveris, V. Stankovic, and Z. Xiong, "Near-capacity dirty-paper code design: a source channel coding approach," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 3013-3031, Jul. 2009. [13] R. Barron, B. Chen, and G. W. Wornell, "The duality between informatino embedding and source coding with side informatino and some applicaitons," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1159-1180, May 2003. [14] S. S. Pradhan, J. Chou, and K. Ramchandran, "Duality bewteen source coding and channel coding and its extension to the side information case," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 1181-1203, May 2003. [15] R. Zamir, S. Shamai, and U. Erez, "Nested linear/lattice codes for structured multierminal binning," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1250-1276, Jun. 2002. [16] M. J. Wainwright, "Sparse graph codes for side information and binning," IEEE Signal Processing Mag., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 47-57, Sep. 2007. [17] M. L. Miller, I. J. Cox, and J. A. Bloom, "Informed embedding:exploiting image and detector information during watermark insertion," in IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing, Sep. 2000. [18] L. Lin, G. DoAerr, I. Cox, and M. Miller, "An e±cient algorithm for informed embedding of dirty-paper trellis codes for watermarking," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, Italy, 2005. [19] C. K. Wang, G. DoAerr, I. J. Cox, "Toward a better understanding of dirty paper trellis codes," IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, vol. 2, pp. II233-II236, 2006. [20] G. D. Forney, "The Viterbi algorithm," Proc. IEEE, vol. 61, pp. 268-278, Mar. 1973.
知情數位浮水印系統是指將欲嵌入之訊息根據載體資訊嵌入到數位媒體中,主要可分為知情編碼及知情嵌入兩部分。本篇論文中,我們在知情嵌入部分提出了二種改進的演算法,與Miller知情嵌入演算法相比,我們的複雜度遠低於Miller所提出。此演算法使用迴旋碼的籬笆結構,以哈得曼碼、單工碼兩種不同的線性區塊碼來標示籬笆結構中的分支,再以逐節嵌入的方式將訊息嵌入,並分析在不同的測量標準及固定相同的失真下,模擬不同的影像攻擊,可發現所提出籬笆結構結合單工碼之演算法皆優於結合哈得曼碼的演算法。我們所提之演算法可藉由調整參數得到所需之失真度及強健性,並可在512x512大小的灰階圖影像上嵌入1536 位元的訊息。

Digital watermarking is the process of embedding information into a digital media, and divided into informed coding and informed embedding. In this paper, we present two informed embedding algorithms for watermarking system and has much less computation complexity than Miller. We use a convolutional code to construct a trellis and then use the codewords of simplex code and Hadamard code for the arc labels of the trellis. Then, embed the information that we want by using sectional embedding. We report the performance of these algorithms under the different measurement standards but fixed fidelity. Moreover, the proposed algorithms are capable of embedding 1536 bits of message in an gray-level image of size 512x512 by some controllable parameters and we can easily adjust the fidelity and robustness of watermarked images.
其他識別: U0005-2207201117214100
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