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標題: From Breakdown to Breakthrough: Subversive Visions of Schizophrenia in Doris Lessing's Briefing for a Descent into Hell
作者: Kuo, Ya-wen
關鍵字: 精神分裂;schizophrenia;蕾莘;自我意識;捐棄自我意識;連恩;本體的不確定性;跳脫現實;心之眼;Doris Lessing;self-consciousness;ego-loss;R. D. Laing;ontological indeterminacy;derealization;mind's eye
出版社: 外國語文學系
就精神醫師的診斷依據而言,精神分裂之三個明顯症狀為對現實的認知低落 (poor reality testing)、對人我的分際喪失 (loss of ego boundaries) 以及宇宙大滅亡的幻覺 (world catastrophe)。本文旨在闡述蕾莘 (Doris Lessing) 如何透過其小說《下地獄之簡報》(Briefing for a Descent into Hell) 中的主角,給予精神分裂者一個發聲的管道,以表達對社會過於簡化精神分裂者內心世界的批判。
文中首先探討小說主角複雜的內心世界,剖析其去人格化 (depersonalization) 過程中具自我省思能力及深沈的意識運作,此非但反映出精神醫師低估精神分裂者的心智活動,更駁斥一般精神分析家既定的退化理論 (regression theory)。其次,重新正面詮釋精神分裂之三個特徵為跳脫現實 (derealization)、捐棄自我意識 (ego-loss) 與體認本體之不確定性 (ontological indeterminacy)。跳脫現實強調現實的無常,對常人視為理所當然之現實觀提出質疑;捐棄自我意識將個體從僵化之社會定位中釋放出來;體認本體之不確定性則揭露世界絕非穩定的結構。此外,從語言與結構切入,說明本文與精神分裂間的緊密切合。由以上討論,本文顛覆世人對現實、自我與瘋狂之習慣性思考。

Schizophrenics are interned and silenced in our society. Despite the fact that the definition of schizophrenia remains ambivalent, clinical psychiatrists in practice have labeled thousands of persons as schizophrenic. Once individuals are attached with this label, they are dealt with stereotypically; little attention is paid to what they say. They then exist as stereotyped images without voice.
The aim of this study is to point out this oversimplification of schizophrenic worldhood by demonstrating how Briefing for a Descent into Hell gives a voice to schizophrenia in a specifically literary way, and what that voice appeals for our society.
Lessing's protagonist is a schizophrenic by the clinical psychiatric criteria, “poor reality testing,” “loss of ego boundaries,” and “world catastrophe.” Yet his inner life is amazingly rich, but neglected by his doctors. The first chapter of this thesis explores the protagonist's highly self-conscious mental activities, which rebut the regression theory. The second chapter reinterprets in a positive way the three aforesaid criteria as derealization, ego-loss, and ontological indeterminacy. Derealization counterattacks our rigid sense of “reality” by emphasizing its contingent aspects; ego-loss represents a break from social power that constructs each subject in a fixed ego-identity; ontological indeterminacy penetrates the pretension of a stable and steady world on the ontological level. The third chapter illustrates how the structure and language of Briefing are tightly joined with the theme of schizophrenia. The three chapters, therefore, strive to undermine our habitual thinking of reality, ego-identity, and sanity.
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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