Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/7063
標題: History and Trauma: A Lacanian Reading of Joy Kogawa's Obasan
從拉岡讀小川樂《歐巴桑》中的歷史及創傷經驗
作者: 劉靜茹
Liu, Ching-ju
關鍵字: history;歷史;trauma;internment experience;silence;subjectivity;Lacan;the Real;創傷經驗;族裔;沉默;主體性;拉岡;真實界
出版社: 外國語文學系所
引用: Banerjee, Chinmoy. “Polyphonic Form and Effective Aesthetic in Obasan.” Canadian Literature 160 (1999): 101-19. Caruth, Cathy. Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1996. Chang, Hsiao-hung. “(In)Visible 921: Catastrophe, Trauma and Visual Consumption.” Chung-Wai Literary Monthly. 30.8 (2002): 83-131. Cheung, King-Kok. “Attentive Silence in Joy Kogawa's Obasan.” Listening to Silences: New Essays in Feminist Criticism. Eds. Elaine Hedges and Shelly Fisher Fishkin. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1994. 113-129. Chua, Cheng Lok. “Witnessing the Japanese Canadians Experience in World War II: Processual, Structure, Symbolism, and Irony in Joy Kogawa's Obasan.” Reading the Literatures of Asian America. Eds. Shirley Geok-lin Lim and Amy Ling. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1992. 97-108. Dickinson, Emily. “Tell All the Truth But Tell It Slant (1129).” The Complete Pomes of Emily Dickinson. Ed. Thomas H. Johnson. London: Faber, 1970. Eeagleton, Terry. Literary Theory: An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell, 1983. Evans, Dylan. An Introductory Dictionary of Lacanian Psychoanalysis. London: Routledge, 1996. Freud, Sigmund. “The Splitting of the Ego in the Defensive Process.” (1938). The Standard Edition. Trans. James Strachey. Vol. 23. London: Hogarth, 1996. 275-78. ---. Beyond the Pleasure Principle. (1920). The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. 1953-74. Vol. 18. 1-66. ---. “The Uncanny.” The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Ed. and Trans. James Strachey. London: Hogarth, 1953. Vol. 17: 219-52. Fink, Bruce. “The Subject and the Other's Desire.” Reading Seminars Ⅰand Ⅱ: Lacan's Return to Freud. Eds. Richard Feldstein, Bruce Fink, and MaireJaanus. New York: State U of New York P, 1996. 79-97. Foster, Hal. “The Return of the Real.” The Return of the Real: The Avant-garde at the End of the Century. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1996. 127-168. Fujita, Gayle K. “Momotaro's Exile: John Okada's No-No Boy.” Eds. Shirey Geok- lin Lim and Amy Ling. Reading the Literatures of Asian America. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1992. 239-258. Gross, Elizabeth. “The Body of Signification.” Eds. John Fletcher and Andrew Benjamin. Abjection, Melancholia and Love: The Work of Julia Kristeva. London: Routledge, 1990. 80-103. Howells, Coral Ann. “Writing by Women.” The Cambridge Companion to Canadian Literature. Ed. Eva-Marie Kröller. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2004. 194-275. Kogaway, Joy. Obasan. 1981. New York: Anchor Books, 1994. Lacan, Jacques. Écrits. Trans. Alan Sheridan. Ed. Jacques-Alain Miler. London: Norton, 1977. ---. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis. Ed. Jacques-Alain Miller. Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York: Norton, 1981. ---. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan: Book I Freud's Paper on Technique 1953-1954. Ed. Jacques-Alain Miller. Trans. John Forrester, with notes by Forrester. New York: Norton, 1991 ---. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan: Book II The Ego in Freud's Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis. Ed. Jacques-Alain Miller. Trans. Sylvana Tomaselli. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988. LaCapra, Dominick. History in Transit: Experience, Identity, Critical Theory. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2004. Liu, Fiona Feng-Hsin. Hear Their Wounds Cry: Traumatic Children in Contemporary Children's Literature. Taipei: Bookman, 2005. Lin, Chia-ying. A Spivakikan Reading of Jean Rhy's Wide Sargasso Sea. Diss. Chengchi U, 2002. Magnusson, A. Lynne. “Language and Longing in Joy Kogawa's ‘Obasan.'” Canadian Literature 116 (1988): 58-66. Peterson, Nancy J. Against Amnesia: Contemporary Women Writers and the Crises of Historical Memory. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 2001. Quinet, Antonio. “The Gaze as an Object.” Reading Seminar XI: Lacan's Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis. Eds. Richard Feldstein, Bruce Fink and Maire Jaanus. New York: State U of New York, 1995. 139-147. Ragland, Ellie. “An Overview of the Real, with Examples from Seminar Ⅰ.” Reading Seminars Ⅰand Ⅱ: Lacan's Return to Freud. Eds. Richard Feldstein, Bruce Fink and Maire Jaanus. New York: State U of New York P, 1996. 192-211. Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. “Can the Subaltern Speak?” Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. Eds. Cary Nelson and Lawrence Grossberg. London: Macmillan, 1998. 271-313. Tharp, Julie. “In the Center of My Body Is a Rift: Trauma and Recovery in Joy Kogawa's Obasan and Itsuka.” Creating Safe Space: Violence and Women''s Writing. Eds. Tomoko Kuribayashi and Julie Tharp. Albany: State U of New York P, 1998. 213-225. Ueki, Teruyo. “Obasan: Revelations in a Paradoxical Scheme.” MELUS 18 (1993): 5-20. Wu, Su-ching. Remembrance of Things Past: Representation and Transgression in Arundhati Roy's The God of Small Things. Diss. Cheungchi U, 2001. Yamada, Matsuye. “Experiential Approaches to Teaching Joy Kogawa's Obasan.” Teaching American Ethic Literatures: Nineteen Essays. Eds. John R. Maitino and David R. Peck. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico P, 1996. 293-311. Žižek, Slavoj. The Sublime Object of Ideology. London: Verso, 1989. ---. “The Undergrowth of Enjoyment: How Popular Culture Can Serve as an Introduction to Lacan.” The Žižek Reader. Eds. Elizabeth Wright and Edmond Wright. London: Blackwell, 1999. 11-36. Zwicker, Heather. “Canadian Women of Color in the New World Order: Marlene Nourbese Philip, Joy Kogawa, and Beatrice Culleton Firght Their Way Home.” Asian-American Women Writing. Ed. Harold Bloom. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1997. 61-63.
摘要: 
Joy Kogawa's postwar novel Obasan, concerning the traumatic experiences, has been widely discussed from the perspectives of history, memory and trauma. I will probe into the issue of trauma, both collective and personal ones, and its aftermath on the protagonist Naomi since her childhood. I employ Lacan's concept of subject formation and its relation to trauma especially when a catastrophic incident occurs ghastly enough to shatter one's subjectivity along with the notion of jouissance to exemplify Naomi's case. Naomi's mother's disappearance, the enforced “mobility” to different detainment camps, the sudden vanishment of family members, and the sexual/racial harassment that plague on her during those harsh years certainly have caused her the difficulty in identification and subjectivity formation. Not only Naomi but also most Japanese Canadians bury themselves deep in amnesia and silence in confrontation with the unbearable traumatic experience. I apply Cathy Caruth's view of trauma to argue that trauma still cries out to be heard through silence and compulsive repetitions. Being young, Naomi is incapable of dealing with the incomprehensible horrors and shock; however, trauma can be detected not only from her silence but also the recurring nightmares and the fairy tales she recalls. Naomi's world seems to be composed of fairy tale plots that she envisions. Some of the fairy tales serve as a fantasy structure for Naomi to imagine a better world; however, the other fairy tales distinctly reveal the haunting of the return of the repressed. This thesis aims to investigate into how Naomi's childhood traumas have influenced her throughout her life, and how she manages to survive the catastrophes as a whole.

小川樂的《歐巴桑》描寫日裔加拿大人在二次世界大戰後的創傷經驗。由於歷史創傷與個人創傷經驗是密不可分、息息相關的。因此,我主要應用拉岡心理分析的架構去談論歷史創傷是如何透過孩童之身及眼來被體驗及觀看,並且探討小說中的主人翁娜歐蜜(Naomi),在當時年幼無知時,遭受到性騷擾與種族主義的迫害,面對母親的消失、空間及地方的不斷變遷、流離失所與親人的來去無蹤的情況之下,所造成的主體形成困難。娜歐蜜及其大部分的族人在面對痛苦創傷經驗時,都選擇了沈默以及遺忘。我借用卡如絲(Cathy Caruth)的理論來論述創傷從沈默亦或夢境中發聲的可能性。在一連串的創傷經驗開始時,娜歐蜜僅是一個四歲的小女孩,在無法了解更別提處理突如其來的震驚及恐怖的狀況下,她似乎童言童語將所遭受到的苦難用日常最熟悉的語言—童話故事來呈現。這些變調的童話故事中,有的是一種夢幻結構(fantasy structure)來幫助娜歐蜜在一切的不堪痛苦中想像一個美好的世界, 用以支撐主體使其不至於崩潰。然而,有些童話卻清楚的呈現了一種弔詭的壓抑的重返(the return of the repressed),在娜歐蜜的身上縈繞不退(haunting)。此篇論文目的在探討娜歐蜜的童年創傷如何影響其主體性的形成,以及在童年時期中,沈默、夢境和童話想像如何用以支撐主體使其不至於崩潰。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/7063
其他識別: U0005-1708200616245500
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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