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Female Gaze: On Tracy Chevalier''s Girl with a Pearl Earring
|關鍵字:||Male/Female Gaze;男性/女性 凝視;Laura Mulvey;Body and Novel;蘿拉莫薇;身體與小說||出版社:||外國語文學系所||引用:||Brooks, Peter. Body Work: Objects of Desire in Modern Narrative. Cambridge,Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1993. Ceibelli, Deborah H. “Girl with a Pearl Earring: Painting, Reality, Fiction.” Journal of Popular Culture 37.4 (May 2004): 583-593. Chevalier, Tracy. Girl with a Pearl Earring. London: Harper Collins Publishers, 1999. Doane, Mary Ann. “Film and the Masquerade: Theorising the Female Spectator.” Feminist Film Theory: A Reader. Ed. Sue Thornham. New York: New York University Press, 1999. ---. The Desire to Desire: The Woman's Film of the 1940s. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987. Freud, Sigmund. “On Narcissism: An Introduction.” The Standard Edition of Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. XIV. Trans James Strachey. London: The Hosarth Pr., 1991. 73-91. Gowing, Lawrence. Vermeer. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1997. Humm, Maggie. Feminism and Film. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997. Johnson, Bradley A. “Constructing the Female Gaze in Faulkner's Mountain Victory.” The Faulkner Journal 16.3(2000-2001): 65-80. Kahr, Madlyn Millner. Dutch Painting in the Seventeenth Century. 2nd ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Perseus, 1993. Kaplan, E. Ann. Women and Film. London: Routledge, 1993. ---, ed. Feminism and Film. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. Lacan, Jacques. “The Split between the Eye and the Gaze.” The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psycho-Analysis. Trans. Alan Sheridan. Ed. Jacques-Alain Miller. New York: Norton, 1978. 67-78. Montias, John Michael. Vermeer and His Milieu: A Web of Social History. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989. Mulvey, Laura. Visual and Other Pleasures. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989. North, Michael. Art and Commerce in the Dutch Golden Age. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997. Paul Nalini. “Other Ways of Looking: The Female Gaze in Jean Rhys' Wide Sargasso Sea.” eSharp 2(2004) < http://www.sharp.arts.gla.ac.uk/issue2/paul.htm> Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. Confessions. New York: Knopf, 1992. Silverman, Kaja. The Acoustic Mirror: the Female Voice in Psychoanalysis and Cinema. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988. Snow, Edward. A Study of Vermeer. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994. Vermeer: The Master of Light and Composition—His Life in Paintings. Dorling, 1999. Watt, Ian. The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson, and Fielding. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1957. Webber, Peter. Girl with a Pearl Earring. Perf. Colin Firth and Scarlett Johansson. Lion Gates Film. 2003. Wheelock, Arthur K. Vermeer & the Art of Painting. London: Yale University Press, 1995. Wiseman, Mary Bittner. “Vermeer and the Art of Silence.” The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 64.3 (2006): 317-324.||摘要:||
《戴珍珠耳環的少女》是一幅十七世紀畫家維梅爾(Johannes Vermeer)頗負盛名的畫。 其獨特之處在於畫中女孩的出塵美麗，和一身平民裝扮與高貴珍珠耳環的不協調所交織而成的謎樣感。由於當代對維梅爾的生平認識極少，致使無人能判定畫中女孩的身分，於是激發崔西‧雪佛蘭(Tracy Chevalier)的靈感，以維梅爾當時的年代與真實的生活情況為背景，賦予此女孩完整生命。此論文將真正的時空背景帶入虛構的小說裡，以男性/女性凝視的辨證概念，探討十七世紀畫家的自由意志與外在影響的關係。
首先，在第一章裡，我應用布魯克斯(Peter Brooks)所闡述關於身體與小說的理論，以侵犯隱私(invasion of privacy)與在身體上做記號(signing on bodies)兩個方法，佐以維梅爾作此畫的技巧與後人的詮釋，一步步將畫裡靜止的女孩轉變成生動的小說主角葛里葉(Griet)；並由此過程得出侵犯與反抗的辨證關係，於第二章裡帶入莫薇(Laura Mulvey)的男性凝視(male gaze)理論裡，試圖證明女性凝視(female gaze)的存在。同時，男性凝視所代表的父權壓制，就如同當代藝術潮流，或畫家贊助者對畫家的影響或要求。為了不使自己失去作畫風格，畫家的自由意志會努力反抗，如同受壓迫的女性所做的回視一樣。因此，在第三章裡，我提出反對莫薇的女性主義者們，包含了卡普蘭(E. Ann Kaplan)與唐安(Mary Ann Doane)所主張的女性凝視理論，讓小說女主角葛里葉一一回擊她在第二章裡所受到的男性凝視的壓迫，想證明女性凝視有征服男性凝視的可能，亦即畫家的自由意志能不受外在影響而保有自我風格。最後，我將於結論裡比較小說與於2003年上映，改編自小說的電影兩版本來做總結。
Girl with a Pearl Earring is a renowned painting by a seventeenth century painter Johannes Vermeer. The uniqueness of it lies in its sense of mystery, resulted from the girl's innocent beauty interweaving with the incoordination of the unrefined costume and costly pearl earrings on her simultaneously. Due to the little information of Vermeer has been preserved nowadays, no one can confirm the girl's identity. This has inspired Tracy Chevalier's curiosity so she uses Vermeer's era and his authentic family background to endow the girl with life. My thesis has drawn on the genuine historical background of seventeenth century Holland into the novel to probe into contemporary relationship between painters and outer influence in terms of the dialectical male/female gaze.
First of all, I employ Peter Brooks's theory concerning body and novel—“invasion of privacy” and “signing on bodies” to interpret Vermeer's painting techniques with others' interpretations of the painting, to highlight the silent girl in the painting and in the novel. Furthermore, I will integrate the idea of dialectic between invasion and resistance into Mulvey's theory of male gaze, to try to prove the existence of female gaze. Meanwhile, the patriarchal oppressive male gazes represent either the influence of the contemporary artistic trend on painter or his patrons' demand on him. In order to remain his own painting style, painter's will definitely fights back as much as the way oppressed female returns her gaze to male gaze. Therefore, in chapter three, I will bring up feminists' theories of female gaze such as theories of E. Ann Kaplan and Mary Ann Doane to explain Griet's fight back to the oppression she has suffered. In so doing, I will try to prove that female gaze may overwhelm male gaze, and this analogically proves that painter may successfully keep his own style. At last, I will make a contrast between the novel and the movie shot in 2003, to juxtapose alternative perspective.
|Appears in Collections:||外國語文學系所|
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