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Maternity and the Establishment of Phallocratic Power: Margaret Atwood''s Surfacing and The Blind Assassin
|關鍵字:||feminism;女性主義;patriarchy;mothering;mother-daughter relationship;Irigaray;Chodorow;父權;母職;母女關係;伊瑞葛萊;雀朵若||出版社:||外國語文學系所||引用:||Atwood, Margaret. Surfacing. London: Virago Press, 1994. ---. The Blind Assassin. London: Virago Press, 2001. Barzilai, Shuli. “Who Is He? The Missing Persons behind the Pronoun in Atwood''s Surfacing.” Canadian Literature 164 (2000 Spring): 57-79. Bouson, J. Brooks. “''A Commemoration of Wounds Endured and Resented: Margaret Atwood''s The Blind Assassin as Feminist Memoir.” Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction 44.3 (2003): 251-69. Burke, Carolyn., Naomi Schor, and Margaret Whitford, eds. Engaging with Irigaray: Feminist Philosophy and Modern European Thought. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. Campbell, Josie P. “The Woman as Hero in Margaret Atwood''s Surfacing.” Mosaic 11.3 (1978): 17-28. Chodorow, Nancy. The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978. Christ, Carol P. “The Surfacing of Women''s Spiritual Quest and Vision.” Signs 2.2 (1976): 316-30. Doane, Janice, and Devon Hodges. From Klein to Kristeva: Psychoanalytic Feminism and the Search for the "Good Enough" Mother. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, c1992. Garner, Shirley Nelson, Claire Kahane, and Madelon. Sprengnether, eds. The (M)other Tongue: Essays in Feminist Psychoanalytic Interpretation. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1985. Grace, Sherrill E. “In Search of Demeter: The Lost, Silent Mother in Surfacing.” Margaret Atwood: Vision and Forms. Ed. Kathryn VanSpanckeren and Jan Garden Castro. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, c1988. 35-47. Granofsky, Ronald. “Fairy-Tale Morphology in Margaret Atwod's Surfacing.” Mosaic 23.4 (1990): 51-65. Grosz, Elizabeth. “The Hetero and the Homo: The Sexual Ethics of Luce Irigaray.” Burke and Whitford 335-350. Hinz, Evelyn J., and John J. Teunissen. “Surfacing: Margaret Atwood''s ''Nymph Complaining.” Contemporary Literature 20.2 (1979): 221-36. Hirsch, Marianne. The Mother/Daughter Plot: Narrative, Psychoanalysis, Feminism. Bloomington [Ind.]: Indiana University Press, 1989. Hite, Molly. The Other Side of the Story: Structures and Strategies of Contemporary Feminist Narrative. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989. Ingersoll, Earl. “Waiting for the End: Closure in Margaret Atwood's The Blind Assassin.” Studies in the Novel 35.4 (2003): 543-58. Irigaray, Luce. An Ethics of Sexual Difference. Trans. Carolyn Burke and Gillian C. Gill. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1993. ---. Democracy Begins Between the Two. Trans. Kirsteen Anderson. New York: Routledge, 2001. ---. Ju, Tu, Nous: Toward a Culture of Difference. Trans. Alison Martin. New York: Routledge, 1993. ---. Sexes and Genealogies. Trans. Gillian C. Gill. New York: Columbia University Press, c1993. ---. This Sex Which Is Not One. Trans. Catherine Porter and Carolyn Burke. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1985. ---. To Be Two. Trans. Monique M. Rhodes and Marco F. Cocito-Monoc. New York: Routledge, 2001. Lyons, Bonnie. “Using Other People's Dreadful Childhoods.” Margaret Atwood: Conversations. Ed. Earl G. Ingersoll. Princeton, N.J.: Ontario Review Press, c1990. 221-233. Muraro, Lusia. “Female Genealogies.” Burke and Whitford 317-333. Özdemir, Erinc. “Power, Madness, and Gender Identity in Margaret Atwood''s Surfacing: A Feminist Reading.” English Studies 84.1 (2003): 57-59. Parkin-Gounelas, Ruth. “What Isn''t There'' in Margaret Atwood''s The Blind Assassin: The Psychoanalysis of Duplicity.” Modern Fiction Studies 50.3 (2004): 681-700. Phelps, Henry C. “Atwood's Edible Woman and Surfacing.” Explicator 55.2 (1997): 112-14. Rigney, Barbara Hill. Margaret Atwood. Totowa, N.J.: Barnes & Noble,1987. Rosengerg, Jerome H. “Woman as Everyman in Atwood's Surfacing: Some Observations on the End of the Novel.” Studies in Canadian Literature 3 (1978): 127-32. Rubenstein, Roberta. “Surfacing: Margaret Atwood''s Journey to the Interior.” Modern Fiction Studies 22 (1976): 387-99. Schwab, Gail M. “Mother's Body, Father's Tongue: Mediation and the Symbolic Order.” Burke and Whitford 351-378. Staels, Hilde. “Atwood's Specular Narrative: The Blind Assassin.” English Studies 85.2 (2004): 147-60. Sugaro, Shelley, eds. Psychoanalysis and Woman: A Reader. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, and London: Macmillan Press, 2000. Walters, Suzanna Danuta. Lives Together/Worlds Apart: Mothers and Daughters in Popular Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1992. Whitford, Margaret. Philosophy in the Feminine. London: Routledge, 1991. ---, ed. The Irigaray Reader. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1991. Wilson, Sharon R. “Blindness and Survival in Margaret Atwood's Major Novels.” The Cambridge companion to Margaret Atwood. Ed. Howells, Coral Ann. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, c2006. ---. “Margaret Atwood and Popular Culture: The Blind Assassin and Other Novels.” Jounal of America & Comparative Cultures 25.3-4 (2002): 270-275.||摘要:||
加拿大當代小說家瑪格麗特艾特伍(Margaret Atwood)在她的兩部小說浮現(Surfacing)及盲眼刺客(The Blind Assassin)當中呈現了多數女性所遭逢之困境及男女間之關係。小說中的主角們面對缺乏正面形象及力量的母親，亦無法繼承任何正面的女性力量，但她們皆在追尋逝去的母親角色的過程當中找到了她們的女性主體，使他們能夠對父系法則所造成的女性受害者形象產生抗衡作用。女性與母親最原初的共生感(symbiosis)或認同感(identification)可能造成女性後來的壓迫，但同時也能促使女性自我認同並認識自己。主角們在書寫童年回憶的過程當中，重新發現了自我和母親的相互關係，同時也消弭了原本存在於母女間的矛盾情緒。
我的研究論文意欲以女性主義心理分析的觀點探討這兩部小說當中的女人如何被父權社會剝削犧牲，而這種犧牲又是如何與母職有關連。論文當中也會討論以下幾個問題：為何父權欲排拒女人為他者(the other)？在女人遭逢的苦難當中，女人自身是受害者或是共犯？原因為何？雙親的功能，特別是母親方面，如何影響女人的主體性及自我的形成？女兒是否他者化母親以獲得其主體性？這些女人當他們身為母親、女兒、妻子、愛人之際，是否試圖克服困境？露西依瑞葛萊(Luce Irigaray)及南西雀朵若(Nancy Chodorow)這兩位心理分析女性主義者皆致力於建構一個屬於女性的文化空間，她們的理論著眼於母親主體與母女系譜的再現，藉由這兩位的理論應用，本論文將會進一步討論上述之問題。本論文分為五個部份，第一章為導論。第二章闡述兩位心理分析女性主義者的理論，第三章從依西嘉瑞(Irigaray)對父權體制的觀點出發，討論小說中的女人所遭逢的壓迫。第四章將重點放在母女關係及其與女性壓迫之間的關連。第五章則是結論。
Man and woman have often been in a state of conflict in that traditionally man, not woman, has always been the “subject.” What contributes to such inharmony between the sexes is the ideology of phallocratism. Feminism since the 1970s has attempted to deconstruct the operation of patriarchy with an eye to wake woman's consciousness. It engages in unveiling what is hidden behind the male dominance from different perspectives and dimensions. Sexual difference, in feminist viewpoint, is a social or cultural construction, which can be reinterpreted with a different perspective. Mothering and the maternal function, according to psychoanalytic feminists, occupy a significant and decisive position in the construction and realization of patriarchy establishment. They put women in inferiority within a heterosexual relationship and further contribute to their oppression. Women often tie themselves with the conventions that are imposed upon them without knowing that they partly perpetuate their own oppression. Consequently, the exploration of mothering and mother-daughter relationship has become part of the focus of feminist studies.
Margaret Atwood, a contemporary Canadian novelist, demonstrates in Surfacing and The Blind Assassin many predicaments most women encounter and the relationships between the sexes. The protagonists in her description often face a mother short of a positive image for the daughters to inherit, but the daughters in their longing and quest for the lost maternal figure eventually reach their female subjectivity, which enables them to counter their victimhood under the Law of the Father. The primitive symbiosis with the mother may cause daughters' suffering yet contribute to their self-identification and propels them to recognize themselves. The daughters' in the process of writing their childhood memories rediscover their self and each other, dissolving the ambivalence between mothers and daughters.
My proposed research intends to explore how the women in the two novels are exploited and victimized by patriarchal society and how such victimization is connected to maternal function through psychoanalytic feminist approach. In my studies, several questions are expected to solved, such as: Why does patriarchy reject woman as the other? Are women the victim or the accomplice in their sufferings? Why? How does the parental function, maternal function in particular, influence women's subjectivity and self? Do the daughters “other” the mothers so as to attain subjectivity? Do the women as mothers, daughters, wives, and lovers overcome their predicaments? These questions along with others will be further explored with the application of two psychoanalytic feminists, including Nancy Chodorow and Luce Irigaray. Their endeavor of constructing a specifically female cultural space is particularly appreciated. In their theories, the representation of maternal subject and mother-daughter genealogy is also one part of their emphasis. The thesis is composed of five parts. Chapter one is the introduction. Chapter two introduces the theories of Irigaray and Chodorow. Chapter three discusses women's oppression in the novels in terms of Irigaray's perspective of patriarchal establishment. Chapter four puts emphasis on mother-daughter relationship and illustrates its connection to women's oppression. Chapter five is the conclusion.
In fact, even in the twentieth century, the relationship between the sexes still needs more consideration, especially when women are still expected to practice her “roles”—mothers, daughters, wives, and lovers. This topic is worth considering in that it better reveals the horror and violence of the ideology and brings a potential impact on the communication between the sexes.
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