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標題: 賤斥的曖昧性: 論《肉年》中肉食與女性身體的關聯與顛覆
Ambiguity of the Abject: Connotation and Suversion between Meats and the Female Body in Ruth L. Ozeki''s My Year of Meats
作者: 蘇欣臨
Su, Hsin-Lin
關鍵字: the abject;賤斥;the female body;power discourse;heterogeneity;resistance;ambuguous;女性身體;權力論述;異質性;抗拒;曖昧性
出版社: 外國語文學系所
引用: Bibliography Black, Shameem. “Fertile Cosmofeminism: Ruth L. Ozeki and Transnational Reproduction.” Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism. 5.1 (2004): 226-56. Buren, Jane Van. “Postmodernism—Feminism and the Deconstruction of the Feminine: Kristeva and Irigaray.” The American Journal of Psychoanalysis. 55.3 (1995): 231-43. Butler, Judith. Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of “Sex”. New York: Routledge, 1993. Caputi, Mary. “The Abject Maternal: Kristeva's Theoretical Consistency.” Women and Language. 16.2 (1993): 32-7. Cooper, Sarah. “Luce Irigaray: Reading and Writing the Body.” Corporeal Practices: (Re)figuring the Body in French Studies. Eds. Julia Prest and Hannah Thompson. Oxford: Peter Lang, 2000. Vol. 4 of Modern French Identities. 8 vols. 135-51. Cornyetz, Nina. “The Meat Manifesto: Ruth Ozeki''s Performative Poetics.” Women and Performance: A Journal of Feminism Theory. 12.1 (2001): 207-24. Derrida, Jacques. “Women in the beehive: a seminar with Jacques Derrida.” Eds. Alice Jardine and Paul Smith. Men in Feminism. New York: Methuen, 1987. Diprose, Rosalyn. “Sexual Difference beyond Duality.” The Bodies of Women: Ethics, Embodiment and Sexual Difference. London: Routledge, 1994. Douglas, Mary. Purity and Danger: an Analysis of Concept of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge, 2002. Fink, Bruce. The Lacanian Subject: Between Language and Jouissance. New Jersey: Princeton UP, 1995. Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage Books, 1987. ---. Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972-1977. Ed. Colin Gorden. Brighton: Hoarvest, 1980. ---. The Use of Pleasure: the History of Sexuality: 2. London: Penguin Books, 1984. ---. The Archaeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language. Trans. Rupert Swyer. New York: Pantheon Books, 1972. Grosz, Elizabeth. “Regifuring Bodies.” Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1994. 3-24. ---. “The Body as Inscriptive Surface.” ---. 138-59. Irigaray, Luce. Je, Tu, Nous: Toward a Culture of Difference. New York: Routledge, 1993. ---. “Three Genders.” Sexes and Genealogies. Trans. Gillian C. Gill. New York: Columbia UP, 1993. Kimmich, Allison. “Writing the Body: From the Abject to Subject.” Auto/Biography. 13.2 (1998): 223-34. Kristeva, Julia. Powers of Horror: an Essay on Abjection. Trans. Leon S. Roudiez. New York: Columbia UP, 1941. ---. Revolution in Poetic Language. Trans. Margaret Miller. New York: Columbia University Press, 1984. ---. Strangers to Ourselves. Trans. Leon S. Roudiez. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1988. ---. “Stabat Mater.” The Tales of Love. Ed. Leon S. Roudiez. New York: Columbia UP, 1987. 234-63. McNay, Lois. Foucault and Feminism: Power, Gender, and the Self. Oxford: Polity Press, 1992. Oliver, Kelly. Reading Kristeva: Unraveling the Double- bind. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1993. Ozeki, Ruth L. My Year of Meats. New York: Penguin Books, 1998. Shildrick, Margrit. “This Body Which Is Not One: Dealing with Differences.” Body Modification. Eds. Mike Featherstone. Lodon: Sage Publications, 2000. 77-92. Shōnagon, Sei. The Pillow Book of Sei Shōnagon. Eds. and Trans. Ivan Morris. New York: Penguin Books, 1967. Stratton, Jon. The Desirable Body: cultural fetishism and the erotics of consumption. New York: Manchester UP, 1996. Peiss, Kathy. “On Beauty…and the History of Business.” Beauty and Business: Commerce, Gender and Culture in Modern America. New York: Routledge, 2001. 7-22. Weiss, Gail. “The Abject Borders of the Body Image.” Perspectives on Embodiment: The Intersections of Nature and Culture. Eds. Gail Weiss and Honi Fern Haber. New York: Routledge, 1999.
在〈肉年〉一書中,肉品在經過資本主義中商品符號的包裝之下,從食品的本質轉化成一種文化及慾望的消費意象。同樣地,女性身體不論是在小說文本之中、或是在當代的資本主義氛圍之中,也塑造成一種可消費的慾望客體。當牛肉不再只是餐盤上的一種選擇,而是一個經過複雜地型塑、不斷地排斥其他的異質性而生成的單一消費符號時,它只能是一個不斷延宕的符號。因此,它需要藉由排除其他低利潤、無法刺激群眾慾望、以及醜陋且古怪的形像,才能形成自身獨一無二的光環。就像小說中的電視節目,企圖將女性身體在文化戀物中可消費的特質與對食物的吞食慾望做結合。然而、當這種消費結構必須經由執行對他者暴力地排斥、移除和消滅,才能穩固自身的權力語言,藉由賤斥體的不在來展現主宰論述,這就表示在此結構中的意指與意符是有其斷裂之處的,這也正是賤斥體所提供的異質性帶來的騷動。我將在論文之中,以茱莉亞‧克莉絲蒂娃的賤斥理論,及米歇兒‧傅柯的權力結構中論述的力量,及身體理論來探討〈肉年〉中,那些排除在消費系統之外的女性身體就站在一個噯昧的位置,從這斷裂之處,對那些型塑的慾望客體如何進行反動?這些賤斥的身體意象又可以召喚怎樣的力量來撼動資本主義中主宰的論述?在消費系統之外遊盪的那些不穩定的符碼又形成怎樣的一股抗拒力量?而最終,我要關懷的是這些排除在外的女性身體,應該如何講述自己的語言,又如何關懷到在權力結構中排除差異性底下的犧牲者? 賤斥體之於主體結構或社會結構,都存在一種遭到排斥卻無法完除去的曖昧性。也就因為它的曖昧性,原本穩固而統一的權力結構也存在了異質性。對異質性的排除也就是不斷重述權力建構的獨霸和暴力性,進而召喚了體制之外不可名狀的力量;從語言不可及之處,賤斥體連結了意指與意符的斷裂,喚醒了肉體中無法馴服的快感驅力。從理性不在之處,賤斥體顛覆了形上學以來的理性書寫,展現如露斯‧伊里嘉萊所期待的那種跨越線性歷史的女性書寫。如書中主角珍,在影片拍攝的過程中尋找那段失落在資本主義論述之外的女性經驗,如亞紀子在從賤斥體的自身經驗中尋找體認自我的過程,最終的目的就是體認結構中的差異、暴力,進而在這種體認中發展出一種多音多義的個人經驗論述。

Decorated by the consumable signs in capitalism, the essence of meats turns into desiring images of cultural fetishism in Ruth L. Ozeki's My Year of Meats. Namely, both in the novel and in capitalistic society, the female body is molded as products in accordance with the object of male sexual desire. If beef is a singular consumable sign signifying the exclusion of undesirable and heterogeneous elements in the dominant discourse more than an option on the dinning plate, it is transformed into a deferred signifier. Excluding the ugly, unhealthy, unattractive, and second-rate material is necessary for the dominant discourse to consolidate the sublime halo of products. Similar to the molded body in capitalism, the commercial strategy of My American Wife! based on the combination of the female body and meats which exerts the power of consumption structure to exclude the abject body violently. Therefore, the conflict between desiring objects and the subject's desire per se reveal the breaks of the signifier and the signified in power discourse. Therefore, the abject female body outside the power discourse occupies an ambiguous position to subvert the molded images of desire of objects in my application with Julia Kristeva's notion of the abject and Michel Foucault's body theory in power discourse. How does the abject female body utilize its power of evocation to resist the dominant discourse? Moreover, how can one cope with the issues of the possible narrative and space for the abject female body outside the system?
The abject being in subjectivity and in social structure exists as an ambiguous element which is expelled but has to stay at the same time. Because of the ambiguity of abject, there is heterogeneity of solid and unitary power structure. In a sense, expelling the heterogeneity of abject in power structure reiterates the arbitrary and violence in the process of constructing power discourse. Abject also invokes the unnamable power outside the social mechanism from the no-name place where the breaks between the signifier and the signified is connected with. From the absence of mankind's rational, the abject represents the uncontrollability of corporeality, such as affect, libido, and jouissance, which rocks the rationality of male discourse from metaphysics. Luce Irigaray's notion of feminine writing also expects a kind of crossing of linear history in reiteration of feminine history as the lost passage. As Jane presents the personal narrative through the process of filming the abject female body outside capitalistic discourse, as Akiko pursuing the identifying of the self in the personal experience as the abject, the purpose of representing the abject being makes difference and violent exclusion of power structure more obvious. It also develops the poly-phoneme, multi- meaning personal narratives.
其他識別: U0005-0208200715114200
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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