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標題: 哈代《無名裘德》之嘉年華論述
Carnival Discourse in Hardy's Jude the Obscure
作者: 蕭淑貞
Hsiao, Shu-Cheng
關鍵字: Bakhtin;巴赫汀;carnival;heteroglossia;chronotope;Hardy;嘉年華;眾聲喧嘩;時空型;哈代
出版社: 外國語文學系所
引用: Works Cited Adelman, Gary. Jude the Obscure: A Paradise of Despair. New York: Twayne, 1992. Bakhtin, Mikhail. Problems of Dostoevsky's Poetics. Ed. and Trans. Caryl Emerson. Minneapolis: Minnesota UP, 1984. ---. Rabelais and His World. Trans. Hélène Iswolsky. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1984. ---. The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Ed. Michael Holquist. Austin: Texas UP, 1981. Bell, Michael Mayerfeld and Michael Gardiner, eds. Bakhtin and the Human Science: Not Last Words. London: SAGE P, 1998. Bernard-Donals, Michael F. Mikhail Bakhtin: Between Phenomenology and Marxism. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994. Berrong, Richard M. Rabelais and Bakhtin: Popular Culture in Gargantua and Pantagruel. Lincoln and London: Nebraska UP, 1986. Blake, Andrew. Reading Victorian Fiction: The Cultural Context and Ideological Content of the Nineteenth-Century Novel. London: Macmillan, 1989. Boumelha, Penny. Thomas Hardy and Women: Sexual Ideology and Narrative Form. Sussex: Harvester Press, 1982. Branham, R. Bracht. “Inventing the Novel.” Bakhtin in Contexts: Across the Disciplines. Ed. Amy Mandelker. Illinois: Northwestern UP, 1995. 79-87. Chapman, Raymond. Forms of Speech in Victorian Fiction. London: Longman, 1994. Clark, Katerina and Michael Holquist. Mikhail Bakhtin. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1984. Coates, Ruth. Christianity in Bakhtin: God and the Exiled Author. Cambridge: Cambridge Up, 1998. Crowley, Tony. “Bakhtin and the History of the Language.” Bakhtin and Cultural Theory. Ed. Ken Hirschkop and David Shepherd. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1989. 68-90. Danow, David K. The Thought of Mikhail Bakhtin: From Word to Culture. Houndmills: Macmillian, 1991. De Man, Paul. “Dialogue and Dialogism.” Rethinking Bakhtin: Extensions and Challenges. Ed. Gary Saul Morson and Carly Emerson. Evanston: Northwestern UP, 1989. 105-14. Dentith, Simon. Bakhtinian Thought: An Introductory Reader. New York: Routledge, 1995. Draper, R. P. “Hardy's Comic Tragedy: Jude the Obscure.” Thomas Hardy: The Tragic Novels. Ed. R.P. Draper. Houndmills: Macmillian, 1991. 233-48. Emerson, Caryl, and Michael Holquist, eds. Speech Genres and Other Late Essays: M. M. Bakhtin. Trans. Vern W. McGee. Austin: U of Texas P, 1986. Faubert, Michelle. “Hardy's Jude the Obscure.” Explicator 60.2 (2002): 76-78. Garson, Marjorie. Hardy's Fables of Integrity: Woman, Body, Text. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Von. Italian Journey. Trans. W. H. Auden and Elizabeth Mayer. London: Collins, 1962. Gregor, Ian. “An End and a Beginning: Jude the Obscure.” Thomas Hardy's Jude the Obscure. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1987. 37-60. Hardy, Thomas. Jude the Obscure: An Authoritative Text: Backgrounds and Contexts, Criticism. Ed. Norman Page. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 1999. Holland-Toll, Linda J. “Bakhtin's Carnival Reversed: King's The Shining as Dark Carnival.” Journal of Popular Culture 33.2 (1999): 131-46. Hollis, Hilda. “The Other Side of Carnival: Romola and Bakhtin.” Papers on Language and Literature 37.3 (2001): 227-54. Holquist, Michael. Dialogism: Bakhtin and His World. New York: Routledge, 1990. Ingham, Petricia. “Jude the Obscure.” Jude the Obscure: Thomas Hardy. Ed. Penny Boumelha. London: Macmillan Press, 2000. 20-31. Keunen, Bart. “The Plurality of Chronotopes in the Modernist City Novel: The Case of Manhattan Transfer.” English Studies 82.5 (2001): 420-36. Langland, Elizabeth. “A Perspective of One's Own: Thomas Hardy and the Elusive Sue Bridehead.” Studies in the Novel 12.1 (1980): 12-28. Lodge, David. After Bakhtin: Essays on Fiction and Criticism. New York: Routledge, 1990. Morson, Gary Saul, ed. Bakhtin: Essays and Dialogues on His Work. Chicago: the U of Chicago P, 1981. Morson, Gary Saul, and Carly Emerson. Mikhail Bakhtin: Creation of a Prosaics. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1990. Mutnick, Deborah. “Time and Space in Composition Studies: ‘Through the Gates of the Chronotope.'” Rhetoric Review 25.1 (2006): 41-57. Oliphant, Margaret. “The Anti-Marriage League.” Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine 159 (1896): 135-49. Pinion, F. B. A Hardy Companion: A Guide to the Works of Thomas Hardy and Their Background. London: Macmillan, 1968. Pittman, Barbara L. “Cross-Cultural Reading and Generic Transformations: The Chronotope of the Road in Erdrich's Love Medicine.” American Literature 67.4 (1995): 777-92. Saldívar, Ramón. “Jude the Obscure: Reading and the Spirit of the Law.” Jude the Obscure: Thomas Hardy. Ed. Penny Boumelha. London: Macmillan Press, 2000. 32-52. Sumner, Rosemary. Thomas Hardy: Psychological Novelist. London: Macmillan, 1981. Thompson, Frank H. Jude the Obscure Notes. Ed. Gary Carey. Lincoln, Nebraska: Cliffs Notes, 1966. Williams, Merryn. A Preface to Hardy. London: Longman, 1993. Wilson, Robert R. “Play, Transgression and Carnival: Bakhtin and Derrida on Scriptor Ludens.” Mosaic 19.1 (1986): 73-89.

This thesis aims to discuss the carnival spirit in Hardy's Jude the Obscure by adopting M. M. Bakhtin's theory of carnival to subvert the stern and conservative notion of Victorian Age. Chapter One introduces the main plot of Jude the Obscure and Bakhtin's theories of carnival, heteroglossia, and chronotope. Chapter Two describes the heteroglossic social phenomenon in the novel. Hardy situated in the period of cultural and political transition which was a time with prosperous heteroglossia. Through the voices of author and the characters, it reflects the diversified Victorian society and the authentic social appearance. Chapter Three is to expound the carnival characteristic of Victorian Age represented by Hardy in Jude the Obscure, including the languages of marketplace, images of the material bodily lower stratum, grotesque images, and so on. Furthermore, this thesis will separately expound how these characteristics form an anti-official power to resist the lofty official culture. Chapter Four mentions how the concept of chronotope determines Jude's destiny. There are three chronotopes that bring forth the crucial influences for Jude as well as reveal the social reality of Victorian Age. Chapter Five demonstrates the relationship between Jude the Obscure and Bakhtin's theory of carnival again. Through carnival discourse, Hardy reflects his dissatisfaction toward the Victorian social system and realistic environment. In the meantime, the carnival characteristic of this novel subverts the false and prudish appearance of Victorian Age successfully.
其他識別: U0005-0701200821204600
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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