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標題: Confirmation of the parasitoid feeding habit in Sycoscapter, and their impact on pollinator abundance in Ficus formosana
作者: Tzeng, H.Y.
Tseng, L.J.
Ou, C.H.
Lu, K.C.
Lu, F.Y.
Chou, L.S.
關鍵字: Ficus formosana;Blastophasga taiwanensis;Sycoscapter;parasitoid;mutualism;Guandaushi Forest Station;fig wasps;evolution;mutualism;moraceae;dioecy
Project: Symbiosis
期刊/報告no:: Symbiosis, Volume 45, Issue 1-3, Page(s) 129-134.
Blastophaga taiwanensis Chen & Chou (Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae) is the pollinator of Ficus formosano Maxim. (Moraccae) at the Guandaushi Forest Station, Taiwan. It co-exists with two non-pollinating species of Sycoscapter Saunders (Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidac). This study of the ecology of two Sycoscapter species provides the first evidence of their parasitoid role and also demonstrates their impact on abundance of B. tawanensis in F formosana in relation to season. Females of the two Sycoscapter species are differentiated by their different ovipositor lengths. The species with the longer ovipositor was more abundant overall, but less so than the species with the shorter ovipositor in the winter crop. There was no obvious difference in the timing of oviposition between the two species, with females of both species appearing on male syconia 1-6 weeks after pollination. Females oviposited externally and their larvae fed on the B. tawanensis larvae. The two Sycoscapter species reduced the abundance of B. tawanensis larvae by 62% within parasitized syconia, and by 54% for all syconia. There was a seasonal variation both in the abundance of wasps and in correlation relationships between pollinators and parasitoids, i.e. parasitoid proportions were much higher and the correlations were mainly significant in the winter and spring crops. We suggest the pollinator and the fig exerts two levels of control on the rate of parasitism by Sycoscapter, and this may help to maintain a balanced symbiotic relationship between the three organisms.
ISSN: 0334-5114
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