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標題: 山姆‧貝克特《殘局》中極簡主義的語言及空間
The Minimalist Language and Space in Samuel Beckett's Endgame
作者: 張喻斐
Chang, Yu-fei
關鍵字: minimalism;簡化主義;nothingness;空無
出版社: 外國語文學系所
引用: Alvarez. A. Samuel Beckett. New York: The Viking Press, 1973. Artaud, Antonin. The Theater and Its Double. Trans. Mary Caroline Richards. New York: Grove, 1958. Astro, Alan. Understanding Samuel Beckett. Columbia: U of South Carolina P, 1990. Beckett, Samuel. The Unnamable. New York: Grove Press, 1970. ---. “Endgame”. Samuel Beckett: The Complete Dramatic Works. London: Faber and Faber, 1986. 92-134. ---. Proust. London: Chatto&Windus, 1931. Brockett, Oscar G. History of the Theater. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1987. Brook, Peter. The Empty Space. New Jersey: Simon & Schuster, 1978. Calderwood,James. “Ways of Waiting in Waiting for Godot.” “Waiting for Godot” and “Endgame”. Ed. Steven Connor. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1992. 29-43. Cant, Sarah E. “In Search of ‘Lessness': Translation and Minimalism in Beckett's Theatre.” Modern Language Studies 35.2 (1999):138-157. Catanzaro, Mary. “Disconnected Voices, Displaced Bodies: The Dismembered Couple in Beckett's Krapp's Last Tape, Happy Days and Play.” Literature and the Grotesque. Ed. Michael J. Meyer. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1995. 31-52. Connor, Steven. “What? Where? Space and the Body.” Samuel Beckett. Oxford: Blackwell, 1988. 140-69. Essif, Les. “The Concentrated (Empty) Image Behind the Fragmented Story in Beckett's Late Plays.” Essays in Theater 17.1 (1998): 15-32. Esslin, Martin. “Introduction.” Absurd Drama. New York: Penguin, 1965. 7-23. ---. The Theater of the Absurd. 3rd. London: Penguin, 1983. ---. “Telling It How It Is: Beckett and the Mass Media.” The World of Samuel Beckett. Ed. Joseph H. Smith. London: The Johns Hopkins UP, 1991. 204-16. Garner, Stanton B., Jr. Bodied Spaces: Phenomenology and Performance in Contemporary Drama. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1994. Gaskell, Ronald. “Beckett: Endgame.” Drama and Reality: The European Theatre Since Ibsen. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1972. 147-54. Haney, William S. “Beckett Out of His Mind: The Theater of the Absurd.” Studies in the Literary Imagination 34.2 (2001): 39-53. Hassan, Ihab. TheLliterature of Silence: Henry Miller and Samuel Beckett. New York: Knopf, 1967. Hatlen, Theodore W. Orientation to the Theater. 4th ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1987. Hayman, David. “Beckett: Impoverishing the Means -- Empowering the Matter.” Beckett Translating / Translating Beckett. Ed. Alan Warren Friedman. Park: Pennsylvania UP, 1987. 110-25. Hesla, David. “Time, Ground, and the End: The Drama.” The Shape of Chaos: An Interpretation of the Art of Samuel Beckett. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1971. 129-66. Homan, Sidney. “Endgame: The Playwright Completes Himself.” Samuel Beckett's Endgame. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelser House, 1988. 123-46. Issacharoff, Michael. “Space and Reference in Drama.” Poetics Today. 1981; 2 (3): 211-214. Kennedy, Andrew. “Endgame.” British and Irish Authors: Introductory Critical Studies -- Samuel Beckett. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1989. 47-65. Kenner, Hugh. “Endgame.” A Reader's Guide to Samuel Beckett. London: Thames& Hudson, 1973. 120-28. Klaver, Elizabeth. “Entering Beckett's Postmodern Space.” Beckett On and On. Ed. Lois Oppenheim and Marius Buning. Madison: Fairleigh Dicken UP, 1996. 111-24. Kumar, Jeevan. “The Chess Metaphor in Samuel Beckett's Endgame.” A History of Scandinavian Theatre. Ed. Frederick J. Marker and Lise-Lone Marker. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1996. 540-52. Lyons, Charles R. “Endgame.” Macmillan Modern Dramatists: Samuel Beckett. London: Macmillan, 1988. 50-74. Ostmeier, Dorothee. “Dramatizing Silence: Beckett's Shorter Plays.” Beckett On and On. Ed. Lois Oppenheim and Marius Buning. Madison: Fairleigh Dicken UP, 1996. 187-98. Pattie, David. “Space, Time, and the Self in Beckett's Later Theatre.” Modern Drama. 43.3 (2000): 393-403. Postlewait, Thomas. “Self-Performing Voices: Mind, Memory, and Time in Beckett's Drama.” Twentieth Century Literature 24.4 (1978): 473-491. Rabillard, Sheila. “The Body in Beckett: Denegation and the Critique of a Depoliticized Theatre.” Criticism 19.1 (1992): 99-18. Richardson, Brian. “Theatrical Space and the Domain of Endgame.” JDTC 14(2) (2000): 67-75. Schwab, Gabriele. “On the Dialectic of Closing and Opening in Endgame.” “Waiting for Godot” and “Endgame”. Ed. Steven Connor. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1992. Sherzer, Dina. “Beckett's Endgame, or What Talk Can Do.” Modern Drama 22.1 (1979): 291-304. Simon, Bennett. “Beckett's Endgame and the Abortion of Desire.” Tragic Drama and the Family: Psychoanalytic Studies From Aeschylus. New Haven: Yale UP, 1988. 212-52. Sontag, Susan. "Susan Sontag: On Style". Palomar. 2008/06/06 http://lemming. Styan, J. L. Symbolism, Surrealism and the Absurd: Modern Drama in Theory and Practice. Vol. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1981. Watson, G. J.. “Beckett and Pinter: Empty Spaces and Closed Room.” Drama: An Introduction. London: Macmillan, 1983. 171-97. Wilcher, Robert. “‘What's it meant to mean?' An Approach to Beckett's Theater.” Criticsl Quarterly 18.2 (1976): 9-37.

In his Theater of the Absurd, Samuel Beckett's use of minimalism is a brilliant and profound technique to present the poetic images on the stage. Instead of traditional narrative form, Beckett explores human condition by means of minimalism -- a technique in which the playwright reduces all the elements on the stage into their essential beings. Without articulating his purpose and the meaning he wants to express, Beckett presents only what the audience sees on the stage. The first chapter is an introduction which discusses what minimalism is, how it works in Beckett's theater, and how the use of minimalism in Beckett's Endgame leads to the state of emptiness. The second chapter is a discussion about how Beckett reduces language into its simplest way of use in Endgame. With the reduction of language to the simple words, simple sentence, sound, or even silence, Beckett explores much more meaning related to human existence than what the traditional narrative form can express. For Beckett, this reduction of language leads both his characters and his audience into a state of emptiness. The third chapter focuses on the discussion of the reduction of stage images in Endgame such as stage lighting, the body images of characters, the action of waiting and storytelling, etc. Beckett reduces his stage elements into a sense of poetic image, which for him is a way to emptiness as well as what the reduced language does. The fourth chapter is focused on the storytelling as a stage image. In Endgame the stories themselves told by the characters are reduced to an endless repetition of human action, and the storytelling itself is reduced to a state of soliloquy where there is no need of accompany or listener. This isolated image of human icon as a poetic image gives Beckett's audience a sense of irresistible loneliness in this empty world.
其他識別: U0005-0408200909215900
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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