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Ryder''s "Stream of Unconsciousness" : A Psychoanalytic Reading of Ishiguro''s The Unconsoled
|關鍵字:||psychoanalytical theories;精神分析;alienation;surrealism;stream of unconsciousness;疏離;超現實;無意識流||出版社:||外國語文學系所||引用:||Adorno, Theodor. Aesthetics and Politics. ed. F. Jameson, London: Verso, 1980 ---. and Max Horkheimer. Dialectic of Enlightenment, trans. John Cumming, London: Verso, 1979 ---. and Max Horkheimer. Culture Industry. ed. J.M. Bernstein, London: Routledge Press, 1991. Bigsby, Christopher. “In Conversation with Kazuo Ishiguro.” Conversations with Kazuo Ishiguro. ed. Brian W. Shaffer and Cynthia F. Wong. Mississippi: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 15-26. Brecht, Bertolt. “The Popular and the Realistic.” Brecht on Theatre: The Developoment of an Aesthetic. 1957. ed. and trans. John Willet. New York: Hill and Wang, 1982. 107-114. Breton, Andre, Richard Seaver, and Helen R. Lane. Manifestoes of Surrealism. trans. Richard Seaver and Helen R. Lane. Michigan: U of Michigan P, 1972. Chaudhuri, Amit. “Unlike Kafka.” London Review of Books 8 June 1995: 30-1. Cuddon, John Anthony. 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Shaffer and Cynthia F. Wong. Mississippi: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 110-9. James, William. Principles of Psychology. New York: Cosimo Classics, 2007. Kakutani, Michiko. “Book of the Times: From Kazuo Ishiguro, A New Annoying Hero”, New York Times, October 17, 1995, Late Edition—Final Kauffmann, Stanley. “The Floating World.” New Republic 6 Nov. 1995. 42-5. Kristeva, Julia. Revolution in Poetic Language. 1974. trans. Margaret Waller. New York: Columbia UP, 1984. Krider, Dylan Otto. “Rooted in a Small Space: An Interview with Kazuo Ishiguro.” Conversations with Kazu Ishiguro. ed. Brian W. Shaffer and Cynthia F. Wong. Mississippi: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 125-34. Lacan, Jacques. “The Mirror Stage as Formative of the I Function as Revealed in Psychoanalytic Experience. “ Ecrits. trans. Bruce Fink, Heloise Fink, and Russell Grigg. New York: Norton, 2006. 75-81. Lewis, Barry. Kazuro Ishiguro. Oxford: Manchester UP, 2000. 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Villar Flor, Carlos. “Unreliable Selves in an Unreliable World: The Multiple Projections of the Hero in Kazuo Ishiguro's The Unconsoled.” Journal of English Studies 2 (2000):159-169. Vorda, Allen. “Stuck on the Margins: An Interview with Kazuo Ishiguro.” Face to Face Interviews with Contemporary Novelist. Houston: Rice UP, 1993. 1-35. Wood, James. “Ishiguro in the Underworld.” The Guardian 5 May 1995:5.||摘要:||
This thesis aims to explore the alienated individual in Ishiguro's The Unconsoled by applying psychoanalytical theories. The Unconsoled is Ishiguro's surrealist work: It uses the “stream of unconsciousness” narrative mode and “the language of dream” to render the theme of the novel: the fragility of the human spirit, the alienation of the individual, and the emptiness of modern society.
The protagonist's “stream of unconsciousness” runs throughout the novel. His four-day-trip is like four musical movements. Ishiguro systemically contrives an overflow of Ryder's mentality and takes a further step to disclose Ryder's expectation, perceptions, and feelings about his past, present and future. Regarding The Unconsoled as a dream text is to mix the Modernist's stream of consciousness with Sigmund Freud's theory of the unconscious. Ryder's dream comes from his repressed desire or his lack of satisfaction. In his unconscious stream we can find an individual alienated in a modern society, his soul lost and uconsoled.
Employing Freud's theory of the unconscious and his interpretation of dreams, we find we can explain the illogical plot details and disclose Ryder's desire and anxiety. We find the unconscious kindly warps, conceals, and softens the meanings of one's dreams and evades shocks, disturbances and censorship by condensation or displacement. Ryder indeed fulfills his wish by dreaming. He has passed Lacan's mirror stage and has begun to identify himself with the image he sees in the “mirror” or the world: In truth, his desire is constantly substituted by an “object petit a,” which is now replaced by music. But such a replacement is just an empty replacement. After all, he as well as all others (who are no other than his projections) cannot get any consolation. Even music can only serve as their common temporary goal or imagined way of consolation.
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