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Shakespeare's Racial Consciousness in Connection with Class and Gender
|關鍵字:||race;族群;class;gender;階級與性別||出版社:||外國語文學系所||引用:||Works Cited I. Primary Sources (Works by Shakespeare) Antony and Cleopatra. Ed. M. R. Ridley. London: Methuen, 1978. (Abbreviated to A&C). Cymbeline. Ed. Jonathan Bate and Eric Rasmussen. London: Macmillan, 2007. 2240-322. Henry VI, Part III. Ed. Jonathan Bate and Eric Rasmussen. London: Macmillan, 2007. 1236-98. (Abbreviated to 3H VI). Macbeth. Ed. Jonathan Bate and Eric Rasmussen. London: Macmillan, 2007. 1859-917. The Merchant of Venice. Ed. John Russell Brown. London: Methuen, 1979. (Abbreviated to MV). Othello. Ed. M. R. Ridley. London: Methuen, 1979. (Abbreviated to OT). The Tempest. Ed. Frank Kermode. London & New York: Methuen, 1979. (Abbreviated to TT). Titus Adronicus. Ed. J. C. Maxwell. London & New York: Methuen, 1987. (Abbreviated to TA). II. Secondary Sources Alexander, Catherine M. S., ed. The Cambridge Shakespeare Library. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003. Appiah, Kwame Anthony. “Racisms.” Anatomy of Racism. Ed. David Theo Goldberg. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1990. 3-17. Asimov, Isaac. Asimov's Guide to Shakespeare. New York: Wings Books, 1970. Badawi, M. M. Background to Shakespeare. London: Macmillan Education Ltd., 1987. Balibar, Etienne, and Immanuel Wallerstein. Race, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities. London: Verso, 1991. Barker, Deborah, and Ivo Kamps. Shakespeare and Gender: A History. London: Verso, 1995. Bate, Jonathan. General Introduction. William Shakespeare Complete Works. Ed. Jonathan Bate and Eric Rasmussen. London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 2007. 8-57. Belsey, Catherine. “Disrupting Sexual Difference: Meaning and Gender in The Comedies.” Alternative Shakespeares. Ed. John Drakakis. London & New York: Methuen, 1985. 166-90. Berggren, Paula. “The Woman's Part: Female Sexuality as Power in Shakespeare's Plays.” The Woman's Part: Feminist Criticism of Shakespeare. Ed. Carolyn Ruth Swift Lenz, Gayle Greene and Carol Thomas Neely. Urbana and Chicago: Illinois Press, 1983. 17-34. Boehrer, Bruce. Shakespeare Among The Animals. New York: Palgrave, 2002. Crewe, Jonathan. “Out of The Matrix: Shakespeare and Race-Writing.” Shakespeare: The Critical Complex. Shakespeare and The Interpretive Tradition. Ed. Stephen Orgel and Sean Keilen. New York & London: Garland, 1999. 327-43. Curtis, M. H. “Education and Apprenticeship.” 1964. The Cambridge Shakespeare Library. Ed. Catherine M. S. Alexander. Vol. 1. UK: Cambridge UP, 2003. 188-206. 3 vols. Daileader, Celia R. Racism, Misogyny, and the Othello Myth: Inter-Racial Couples from Shakespeare to Spike Lee. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005. “Fair.” The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989. Fitch, Robert E. Shakespeare: The Perspective of Value. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1969. Flannery, Christopher. “Shakespeare's Bare Bodkin.” <http://www.ashbrook.org/publicat/oped/flannery/98/shakespeare.html> Gerlach, Jeanne. “Revisiting Shakespeare and Gender.” The Women in Literacy and Life Assembly of the National Council of Teachers of English. Vol. 5. <http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/journals/old-WILLA/fall96/gerlach.html> Harrison, William. “Description of Elizabethan England, 1577.” Modern History Sourcebook. 1998. <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1577harrisonengland. html>. Harrison, G. B. Introducing Shakespeare. 3rd ed. London: Penguin, 1966. ---. Shakespeare: The Complete Works. New York: Harcourt, 1952. Hoskins, W. G. “Provincial Life.” 1964. The Cambridge Shakespeare Library. Ed. Catherine M. S. Alexander. Vol. 1. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2003. 166-73. 3 vols. Kastan, David Scott. “Is There a Class in This (Shakespearean) Text?” Shakespeare: The Critical Complex. Political Shakespeare. Ed. Stephen Orgel and Sean Keilen. New York & London: Garland, 1999. 1-21. Kermode, Frank. “Introduction to The Tempest.” Shakespeare: The Tempest. Ed. D. J. Palmer. London: Macmillan, 1991. 151-67. Lace, William W. Elizabethan England. San Diego: Lucent, 1995. <http://www.brandonsd.mb.ca/crocus/library/social_classes_in_shakespeare.htm >. Loomba, Ania. Gender, Race, Renaissance Drama. Delhi: Oxford UP, 1993. McEachern, Claire. “Fathering Herself: A Source Study of Shakespeare's Feminism.” Orgel and Keilen 113-34. Montrose, Louis Adrian. “ ‘Shaping Fantasies': Figurations of Gender and Power in Elizabethan Culture.” Orgel and Keilen 19-52. Newman, Karen. “Portia's Ring: Unruly Women and Structures of Exchange in The Merchant of Venice.” Orgel and Keilen 265-79. Orgel, Stephen, and Sean Keilen, eds. Shakespeare and Gender. Shakespeare: The Critical Complex. New York & London: Garland, 1999. Poynter, F. L. “Medicine and Public Health.” Alexander 174-87. Reddaway, T. F. “London and The Court.” Alexander 207-216. Shapiro, James. Shakespeare and The Jews. New York: Columbia UP, 1996. “Social Classes in Shakespeare's England.” Crocus Plains School Library 28 April 2010. 30 April 2010 <http://www.brandonsd.mb.ca/crocus/library/social_classes_in_shakespeare.htm>. Todorov, Tzvetan. “Race and Racism.” Trans. Catherine Porter. Theories of Race and Racism. Ed. Les Back & John Solomos. London & New York: Routledge, 2000. 64-70. Tung, C. H. “Kingship and Counterfeit: Shakespeare's Deconstructionist Vision in Henry IV.” Journal of the College of Liberal Arts 31 (2001): 73-113. Taichung: NCHU. --------. “The Jew and the Moor: Shakespeare's Racial Vision.” Chung Hsing Journal of Humanities 41 (2008): 233-70. Taichung: NCHU. Wain, John. Introduction. Shakespeare: Othello. Ed. John Wain. London: Macmillan, 1994. 11-35. Wikipedia. 2010. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 13 April 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page>.||摘要:||
本論文分為六章。第一章介紹莎士比亞時代的社會文化背景以及本篇論文的寫作方法。 第二章則是簡介至今多數評論家對莎士比亞的種族、階級或性別的批評觀點。 接著，第三章探討莎士比亞的種族意識與視野。 第四章及第五章則是分別探究當種族意識連上階級，以及當種族意識連上性別會出現哪些狀況，以及有哪些含義。 最後，此論文的總結是：莎士比亞是一位意見不偏不倚、視野公平的劇作家。但當種族，階級和性別這三種議題同時出現時，階級可能是莎士比亞心中佔有最優先地位的社會文化意識。
Shakespeare has been much studied in the light of his social/cultural consciousness, especially on a specific topic that weighs heavily in recent critics' mind, namely, race, gender, or class. However, comparatively few critics have bothered to put the three major social/cultural issues together for a comprehensive study of Shakespeare's social/cultural views. Therefore, this thesis aims to study Shakespeare's racial consciousness in connection with the issues of class and gender.
The scope of this study is limited to the five relevant plays: Titus Andronicus, The Merchant of Venice, Antony and Cleopatra, Othello, and The Tempest. The approach used in this research is primarily a textual approach. Nevertheless, as this thesis is a social or cultural study, it has drawn on works of social/cultural studies. Consequently, the approach turns towards a sociological or cultural approach.
This thesis is divided into six chapters. The first introductory chapter clarifies Shakespeare's social and biographical background, and explains the research method and the way of writing this thesis. In the second chapter, a general review of Shakespearean criticism is made about race, gender, and class individually or collaterally. In the third chapter, the discussion is focused on Shakespeare's racial vision. The racial vision is subsequently connected to class consciousness in the fourth chapter, and to gender consciousness in the fifth chapter. In the last chapter, finally, a tentative, and yet not insignificant, conclusion is made about Shakespeare's views on racism linked to his gender and class consciousness. Shakespeare is summed up as an impartial playwright with a fair vision in consideration of problems related to race, class and gender, although class might occasionally become his priority concern.
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