Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/7230
標題: 如夢是喚:童妮.摩里森《寵兒》與《慈愛》中的倫理與美學
An Awakening to the Other Beyond: Ethics and Aesthetics in Toni Morrison''s Beloved and A Mercy
作者: 王衍雲
Wang, Yan-Yun
關鍵字: Beloved;寵兒;A Mercy;the ethics of memory;aesthetics;Levinas;the said;the saying;慈愛;創傷;記憶的倫理;記憶的美學;列維納斯;已說;言說
出版社: 外國語文學系所
引用: Works Cited Angelo, Bonnie. “The Pain of Being Black: An Interview with Toni Morrison.” Conversation with Toni Morrison. Ed. Danille Taylor-Guthrie. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1994. 255-61. Beaulieu, Elizabeth Ann, ed. The Toni Morrison Encyclopedia. Westport: Greenwood, 2003. Bernard-Donals, Michael F. Forgetful Memory: Representation and Remembrance in the Wake of Holocaust. Albany: SUNY P, 2009. Bhabha, Homi K. Introduction. The Location of Culture. London: Routledge, 1994. 1-18. Brooks, Roy L. “Not Even an Apology?” When Sorry Isn't Enough: The Controversy Over Apologies and Reparations for Human Injustice. New York: New York UP, 1999. 309-16. Caldwell, Gail. “Author Toni Morrison Discusses Her Latest Novel Beloved.” Conversation with Toni Morrison. Ed. Danille Taylor-Guthrie. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1994. 239-45. Caruth, Cathy. Preface. Trauma: Explorations in Memory. Ed. Cathy Caruth. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP, 1995. vii-ix. ---. “Trauma and Experience” Introduction. Trauma: Explorations in Memory. Ed. Cathy Caruth. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP, 1995. 3-12. ---. “Recapturing the Past” Introduction. Trauma: Explorations in Memory. Ed. Cathy Caruth. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP, 1995. 151-7. ---. Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History. Baltimore: The John Hopkins UP, 1996. Camp, Stephanie M. H., and Edward E. Baptist. “A History of the History of Slavery in the Americas.” Introduction. New Studies in the History of American Slavery. Eds. Camp and Baptist. Athens: U of Georgia P, 2006. 1-18. Comfort, Susan. “Counter-Memory, Mourning and History in Toni Morrison's Beloved.” LIT 6 (1995): 121-132. Conner Marc C. Introduction. The Aesthetics of Toni Morrison: Speaking the Unspeakable. Ed. Marc C. Conner. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2000. ix-xxvii. Corey, Susan. “Toward the Limits of Mystery: The Grotesque in Toni Morrison's Beloved.” The Aesthetics of Toni Morrison: Speaking the Unspeakable. Ed. Marc C. Conner. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2000. 31-48. Critchley, Simon. Introduction. The Cambridge Companion to Levinas. Ed. Simon Critchley and Robert Bernasconi. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002. 1-32. ---. The Ethics of Deconstruction. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992. Darling, Marsha. “In the Realm of Responsibility: A Conversation with Toni Morrison.” Conversation with Toni Morrison. Ed. Danille Taylor-Guthrie. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1994. 246-54. Davis, Christina. “An Interview with Toni Morrison.” Conversations with Toni Morrison. Ed. Danille Taylor-Guthrie. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1994. 223-33. Fisch, Audrey. Introduction. The Cambridge Companion to the African American Slave Narrative. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2007. 1-7. Fultz, Lucille P. Toni Morrison: Playing with Difference. Chicago: U of Illinois P, 2003. Funkenstein, Amos. Perception of Jewish History. Berkeley: U of California P, 1993. Gould, Philip. “The Rise, Development, and Circulation of the Slave Narrative.” The Cambridge Companion to the African American Slave Narrative. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2007. 11-27 Gravitz, Lauren. <http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=6091439&page=1> Hutton, Patrick H. History as an Art of Memory. Handover: U of Vermont, 1993. Jennings, La Vinia Delois. “A Mercy: Toni Morrison Plots the Formation of Racial Slavery in Seventeenth-Century America.” Callaloo 32.2 (2009): 645-49. Jordan, Don and Michael Walsh. White Cargo: The Forgotten History of Britain's White Slaves in America. Edinburgh: Mainstream, 2007. Kearney, Richard. “Narrative and the Ethics of Remembrance.” Questioning Ethics: Contemporary Debates in Philosophy. Ed. Richard Kearney and Mark Dooley. New York: Routledge, 1999. 18-32. Lanzmann, Claude. “The Obscenity of Understanding: An Evening with Claude Lazmann.” Trauma: Explorations in Memory. Ed. Cathy Caruth. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP, 1995. 200-20. Levinas, Emmanuel. Otherwise than Being or Beyond Essence. 1981. Trans. Alphonso Lingis. Pittsburgh: Duquesne UP, 2009. Tans. of Autrement qu''&ecirc;tre ou au-del&agrave; de l''essence. 1974. ---. Totality and Infinity: An Essay on Exteriority. 1969. Trans. Alphonso Lingis. Pittsburgh: Duquesne UP, 2002. Trans. of Totaite et Infini. 1961. Leys, Ruth. Trauma: A Genealogy. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2000. Lidinsky, April. “Prophesying Bodies: Calling for a politics of collectivity in Toni Morrison's Beloved.” The Discourse of Slavery: Aphra Behn to Toni Morrison. London: Routledge, 1994. 191-216. Margalit, Avishai. The Ethics of Memory. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2002. Matus, Jill. Toni Morrison. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1998. Morrison, Toni. A Mercy. New York: Knopf, 2008. ---. Beloved. New York: Vintage, 2004. ---. “A Bench by the Road: Beloved.” Toni Morrison: Conversation. Ed. Carolyn C. Denard. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 44-50. ---. “The Dancing Mind.” What Moves at the Margin: Selected Nonfiction. Ed. Carolyn C. Denard. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 187-90. ---. “The Death of September 11.” What Moves at the Margin: Selected Nonfiction. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 154-5. ---. “Faulkner and Women.” Toni Morrison: Conversations. Ed. Carolyn C. Denard. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 24-8. ---. “The Future of Time: Literature and Diminished Expectations.” What Moves at the Margin: Selected Nonfiction. Ed. Carolyn C. Denard. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 170-86. ---. “The Nobel Lecture in Literature.” What Moves at the Margin: Selected Nonfiction. Ed. Carolyn C. Denard. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 198-207. ---. “Peril.” Burn This Book: PEN Writers Speak Out on the Power of the World. New York: Harper, 2009. ---. Preface. The Black Book. New York: Random House, 2009. ---. “The Site of Memory.” What Moves at the Margin: Selected Nonfiction. Ed. Carolyn C. Denard. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 65-82. ---. “Rootedness: The Ancestor as Foundation.” What Moves at the Margin: Selected Nonfiction. Ed. Carolyn C. Denard. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 56-64. ---. “Unspeakable Things Unspoken: The Afro-American Presence in American Literature.” Michigan Quarterly Review 28.1 (1989): 1-34. Moyer, Bill. “A Conversation with Toni Morrison.” Conversations with Toni Morrison. Ed. Danille Taylor-Guthrie. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1994. 262-74. Neary, Lynn. Interview with Toni Morrison. 27 Oct. 2008 <http://www.npr.org/player/v2/mediaPlayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=95961382&m=96097293> &quot;Nobel Prize for Literature 1993 - Press Release&quot;. Nobelprize.org. 27 Aug 2010 <http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1993/press.html> Norris, Michele. Toni Morrison Finds ''A Mercy'' In Servitude. 27. Oct. 2008 <http://www.npr.org/player/v2/mediaPlayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=96118766&m=96187946> Peperzak, Adriaan Theodoor. Beyond: The Philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas. Illinois: Northwestern UP, 1999. Peterson, Nancy. Against Amnesia. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 2001. ---. “Canonizing Toni Morrison.” Introduction. Modern Fiction Studies 39 (1993): 461-79. Radstone, Susannah, “Trauma Theory: Context, Politics, Ethics.” Paragraph 30.1 (2007): 9-29. Robbins, Jill. Altered Reading: Levinas and Literature. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1999. Rosen, Joseph. “From a Memory beyond Memory to a State beyond the State.” Difficult Justice: Commentaries on Levinas and Politics. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 2006. 285-306. Rushdie, Salman. “An Interview with Toni Morrison.” Toni Morrison: Conversation. Ed. Carolyn C. Denard. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 51-61. Robbins, Jill. Altered Reading: Levinas and Literature. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1999. Schappell, Elissa. “Toni Morrison: The Art of Fiction.” Toni Morrison: Conversation. Ed. Carolyn C. Denard. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 2008. 62-90. Stein F. Karen. Reading, Learning, Teaching Toni Morrison. New York: Peter, 2009. Tally, Justine. Ed. The Cambridge Companion to Toni Morrison. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2007. Tate, Claudia. “Toni Morrison” Conversations with Toni Morrison. Ed. Danille Taylor-Guthrie. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1994. 156-70. Turner-Sadler, Joanne. African American History: An Introduction. New York: Peter Lang, 2009. Wyschogrod, Edith. “Language and Alterity in the Thought of Levinas.” The Cambridge Companion to Levinas. Ed. Simon Critchley and Robert Bernasconi. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2002. 188-205.
摘要: 
本論文要藉由對童妮.摩里森《寵兒》以及她最新的小說《慈愛》的閱讀,來探討作品中創傷記憶的倫理,與記憶的美學。《寵兒》的出版之後,有相當多的研究對其作創傷、記憶、歷史等等理論的探討,呈現這本小說如何作為一個美國黑奴創傷歷史「不可說」的「再記憶」。本論文針對這個「再記憶」做一個倫理的提問:若過去的創傷是如此痛苦不堪,何以我們必須再記憶?何以不選擇忘記?如果我們面對創傷的歷史,記憶是必須的,我們是有責任的,那麼這當中牽涉了什麼樣的倫理問題?透過對《寵兒》中有奴隸創傷經驗和沒有奴隸創傷經驗的角色閱讀,本論文試圖找出創傷記憶中和歷史他者的倫理關係;以及「記憶」和「忘記」在創傷記憶中的悖論性(paradox)。
另外,《慈愛》是摩里森在二零零八年出版的最新作品。在這本小說中,摩里森再次展現她對美國歷史的關懷,回到十七世紀,美國建國之前的殖民時期,並重拾美國奴隸的議題。在《慈愛》中,摩里森追溯「奴隸」一詞的起源。摩里森認為,長久以來,美國社會對「奴隸」一詞的認知有著種族的意識形態。在《慈愛》中,摩里森不再以黑人社群為主角,而是呈現出美國殖民時期各種種族-非洲黑人、歐洲白人、原住民、各種族混血-融合在一起的圖像,在《慈愛》中,「奴隸」沒有顏色,是階級問題不是種族問題。本論文將對照《寵兒》與《慈愛》,探討摩里森書寫美國奴隸歷史所呈現出的美學,試圖接續對《寵兒》的倫理探討,提問:如果面對受創的歷史他者,我們有記憶的必需,那麼,該如何記憶?該如何再現歷史的他者?摩里森作為一個再現記憶的創造者,她的美學中有什麼樣的倫理?再此,本論文將引用列維納斯他者倫理學中的語言概念「已說」及「言說」來檢視這兩本小說,是如何在再現歷史他者之同時,並非用語言去同化他者。透過對摩里森這兩本小說的探討,本論文將探究摩里森作品中的倫理向度。

This thesis aims to explore the ethics of traumatic memory and aesthetics of memory through the reading Toni Morrison''s Beloved (1987) and her latest novel A Mercy (2008). Shortly after Beloved was published, plenty of critical studies have emerged from the perspectives of trauma, memory and history, dealing with how Beloved as a "rememory" tells an unspeakable and unspoken history. This thesis intends to raise the question about "rememory": If the past is so painful, why do we have to remember? Why do we choose to forget? If, facing the traumatic past, we are responsible for remembrance, what kind of ethics we are involved in? Through the traumatized black ex-slaves and non-traumatized black in Beloved, this thesis attempts to examine the ethical relation between the historical other and the descendents, and also, the traumatic memory that is paradoxically comprised of "remembrance" and "forgetfulness."
A Mercy is Morrison''s latest novel published in 2008. In A Mercy, Morrison demonstrates, again, her concern with the history of America, returning to the colonial America in the 17th century, tracing the originality of "slavery" and challenging the ideological understanding of "American slaves" as "black slaves." Instead of the black community, Morrison founds her novel on the characters of various races: black Africans, white Europeans, the Natives, etc. A Mercy manifests that "slavery" is a problem of "class" rather than "race." By juxtaposing Beloved and A Mercy, this thesis will look into Morrison''s shifting formulation of the history of American slavery, exploring the way in which Morrison forms past memory in her works. If remembering the traumatic past is necessary, then how to remember it? As the creator of "rememory," how does Morrison''s language represent the historical other without totalizing the historical other? Here, this thesis will draw upon Levinas's ethics and his ideas of language in terms of "the said" and "the saying." Through the reading of these two novels in the light of Levinasian ethics, this thesis will investigate the ethical dimension of Morrison''s works.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/7230
其他識別: U0005-0902201114253100
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

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