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A Kristevian Reading of John Fowles's The Collector
|關鍵字:||The Collector;蝴蝶春夢;Clegg;Miranda;chora;abjection;fetishism;voyeurism;克雷格;米蘭達;母體;賤斥;戀物癖;偷窺||出版社:||外國語文學系所||引用:||Works Cited Bagchee, Syhamal. “The Collector: The Paradoxical Imagination of John Fowles.” Journal of Modern Literature 8.2 (1980/1981): 219-234. Print. Baruch, Elaine Hoffman. “On Splitting the Sexual Object: Before and After Freud.” Women, Love, and Power: Literary and Psychoanalytic Perspectives. New York: New York U, 1991. 103-121. Print. Barthes, Roland. The Pleasure of the Text. Trans. Richard Miller. New York: Hill and Wang, 1975. Print. Baudrillard, Jean. Revenge of the Crystal: Selected Writings on the Modern Object and Its Destiny, 1968-1983. London: Pluto P in association with the Power Institute of Fine Arts, U of Sydney, 1990. Print. Beardsworth, Sara. Julia Kristeva: Pychoanalysis and Modernity. Albany: State U of New York P, 2004. Print. Becker-Leckrone, Megan. Julia Kristeva and Literary Theory. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Print. 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約翰．傅敖斯(John Fowles)最黑暗的作品--《蝴蝶春夢》(The Collector)--是一部看似簡單卻深藏人性奧妙的小說。而運用朱莉亞．克莉斯蒂娃(Julia Kristeva)一樣複雜又帶有負面力量的賤斥(abjection)理論來分析此部小說，探討那常被遺忘的角落—母體(chora)有其必要性。母親的身體在克莉斯蒂娃的賤斥理論扮演著非常重要的角色，它主宰著我們日後與其他事物之間的相對關係。以《蝴蝶春夢》男主角弗雷德里克．克雷格(Frederic Clegg)為例，他之所以會有戀物癖(fetishism)、偷窺(voyeurism)等變態行為都是因為他兩度和母親分離的結果。和母親第一次的分離是每個人都會歷經的一刻--即生育的那一瞬間。也由於這樣的分離造成我們內心最遠始的缺(inaugural loss)，導致我們終極一生不斷的尋找代替物，所以嚴格說起來每個人其實都是戀物癖者(fetishist)。但是克雷格的情形特為嚴重，除了他被母親拋棄的原因外，他的生長環境也是重要因素。另一方面，女主角米蘭達．葛雷(Miranda Grey)與她母親之間不健全的母女關係也導致她依附父權進而走向自我毀滅之路。這些與母親間種種的若即若離關係形成了克莉斯蒂娃所謂的賤斥。賤斥一詞是克莉斯蒂娃用來刻劃我們與那些我們想要極力排除卻又無法完全丟棄之物之間的關係，而所謂的賤斥物即是母親。當然，這理論可以被延伸用來探討那些處於賤斥地位的人，像是有色人種或處於社會劣勢地位之人。在《蝴蝶春夢》這部小說中，克雷格就是一個被社會遺棄、排擠的可憐蟲，而米蘭達則是被父權壓抑的女性代表。以他們來和克莉斯蒂娃的賤斥理論作為互文本的參照，是再適合不過的例子。
John Fowles's darkest book, The Collector, is a novel which seems ostensibly stylistically simple but is indeed loaded with complicated human nature. In this case, it serves as the best archetypal case for psychoanalysis in terms of abjection for it is Kristeva's most ambiguous theory with a negative force as well. Examined in the perspective of abjection, The Collector is to give out its most neglected meaning and forgotten corner—chora. Chora plays an important role of Kristeva's formula of abjection and will dominate our later relationship to everything around us. For instance the male protagonist, Frederic Clegg, whose addiction to fetishism, voyeurism and other abnormal deeds is because of his double separation with his mother. The first separation is actually happening at the moment when we segregate with our mother, that is, the moment of birth. This kind of division will turn into the inaugural loss which will lead us to an endless quest of everything able to substitute mother. If this is the case, everyone can be called a fetishist in a serious concern. In Clegg's case, his addiction to fetish is particularly acute because of his growing process. On the other hand, the unhealthy relationship between the female protagonist, Miranda Grey, and her mother also leads Miranda to self-destruction by attaching herself to the male authority. All these in-between situations with mother are defined as abjection by Kristeva. Abject is what the subject wants to cast out but cannot and mother is exactly the first object to be abjected. This theory is often used to describe the state of often-marginalized groups, such as women and people of color. Analogously speaking, Clegg is a wretched person discarded by his mother and the society while Miranda is the symbolic representative of women oppressed by the male authority. In this sense, inter-textuality is formed between The Collector and abjection theory.
This thesis consists of three chapters. Chapter one aims to offer an overall view of Kristeva's theory of abjection and how it is applied to our society. Chapter two employs the notion of abjection to illustrate Clegg's case. Chapter three will prove Miranda's becoming of abjection is the result of joint male authority of G.P. and Clegg. The conclusion is in the hope to lead everyone into the journey of abjection to inspect the abject selves inherent in themselves and this is exactly the powers of horror that Kristeva wishes to convey.
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