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Autonomous Navigation and Interactive Operation of a Tour Guide Robot
|關鍵字:||Tour guide robot;導覽機器人||出版社:||電機工程學系所||引用:|| http://www.nedo.go.jp/expo2005/robot/work/page007.html.  http://www.nedo.go.jp/expo2005/robot/work/page006.html.  W. Burgard, A. B. Cremers, D.Fox, D. Hahnel, G. Lakemeyer, D. Schulz, W. Steiner, and S. Thrun, “ The Interactive Tour-Guide Robot, ” The fifteen National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Madison Wisconsin, 1998.  S. Thrun, M. Bennewitz, W. Burgard, A. B. Cremers, F. Dellaert, and D.Fox, “MINERVA: A Second-Generation Museum Tour-Guide Robot ,” Proceeding of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. Detroit, Michigan USA, pp. 1999-2005. 1999.  B. Graf, O. Barth “Entertainment Robotics :Example, Key Techonologis and Perspectives,”Fraunhofer Institute of Manufacturing Engineering and Autonomation (IPA).  B.Jensen, G.Froidevaux, X.Greppin, A.Lorotte, L.Mayor, M.Meisser, G.Ramel, R.Siegwart, “The Interactive Autonomous Mobile System Robox, ” Proceeding of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and System, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 1221-1227,2002.  G. Kim, W. Chung, K.R. Kim, M. Kim, S. Han, R. H. Shinn “The Autonomous Tour-Guide Robot Jinny,” Proceeding of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and System, Sendai, Japan, pp. 3450-3455,2004.  http://www.robotworld.org.tw/index.htm?pid=10&News_ID=667  http://www.mirl.itri.org.tw/mirl-inter/knowledge/mim/291/291-03.pdf  Y. C. Wang, Mapping and Navigation of a Mobile Robot Assistant for the Elderly People, M.S. Thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung-Hsing University, June 2006.  Y. S. Huang, Design and Implementation of a Nursing-Care Walking Assistant for the Elderly, M.S. Thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung-Hsing University, June 2005. W, Chung, G. Kim, M. Kim, C. Lee. “Integrated Navigation System for Indoor Service Robots in Large-scale Environments” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 5099 - 5104, 2004.  G.. Kim, W. Chung, S.K. Park, M. Kim “ Experimental Research of Navigation Behavior Selection Using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets (GSPN) for a Tour-Guide Robot ,” Proceeding of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and System, pp. 2259 - 2265,2005.  D. Kurth, G. A. Kantor and S.Singh, “Experimental results in range-only localization with radio,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and System, Vol.1, pp. 974-979, 2003.  G. A. Kantor and S. Singh, “Preliminary results in range-only localization and mapping,” IEEE International Conference Robotics and Automation, 2002, pp. 1818-1823.  D. , W. Burgard, D. Fox, K. Fishkin, and M. Philipose, “Mapping and localization with RFID technology,” IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2004, pp.1015-1020.  T. Tsukiyama, “Navigation system for mobile robots using RFID tags,” IEEE International Conference on Advanced Robotics, pp. TIV-4-1, 2003.  R.O. Duda. and P.E. Hart. Pattern classification and scene analysis, John Wiley & Sons, 1973.  L.Zhang, B.K.Ghosh, “Line segment based map building and localization using 2d laser rangefinder,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, vol.3, pp.2538-2543, 2000.  G. A. Borges and M.-j. Aldon. “Line extraction in 2d rangeimages for mobile robotics,” Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, vol.40, pp.267-297, 2004.  V. Nguyen, A. Martinelli, N. Tomatis, R. Siegwart, “A comparison of line extraction algorithms using 2d laser rangefinder for indoor mobile robotics,” IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp.1929-1934, 2005.  F. Lu, E. Milios. “Robot pose estimation in unknown environments by matching 2d range scans,” Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 935-938, 1994.  P. Jensfelt and H. Christensen “Laser based pose tracking,” IEEE International Symposium on Robotics and Automation, vol.4, pp. 2994-3000, 10-15, 1998.  K.T. Song, W. H. Tang, “Environment perception for a mobile robot using double ultrasonic sensors and a CCD camera,” IEEE Transactions Industrial electronics, vol.43, no.3, pp.372-379, 1996.  http://www.sony.jp/products/Consumer/aibo/index.html  http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/sociable/baby-bits.html||摘要:||
本論文之研究目的在發展導覽機器人之自主導航與人機互動技術。自主導航技術包括自動地圖建立、自我定位、區域尋標、安全防碰撞、動態路徑規劃及自主導航控制。自我定位技術利用RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) 模組，將量測所得之訊號強度(RSSI)轉換為對應之距離資料，經由所提出之最小平方法得到機器人粗略姿態，再經由增廣型卡爾曼濾波器(Extended Kalman Filter)，求得精確之機器人之初始定位。結合RFID與2D雷射掃瞄器量測環境特徵，可完成自動地圖建立。動態規劃方法用以規劃最短距離之全域路徑。透過本文中由各事件驅動與系統狀態所構成的順序與邏輯圖，可發展所需Petri-net控制器，用以實現高階控制，達成導覽機器人的高性能的全自主導航。在人機互動設計方面，含有遠端操控，多樣化的臉部表情及雙手臂擺動，靜態瀏覽與動態導覽模式之操作情境被提出，用以吸引參訪人們的注意與興趣，進而增加使用者與機器人間的互動樂趣。許多實驗數據被用以檢驗確認本文所提方法與技術的功效。本文所發展的技術可期待用以設計一實用的導覽機器人。
This thesis develops methodologies and techniques for navigation and human-robot interaction of a tour-guide robot with improved system configuration. The designed navigation system includes automatic mapping, global localization, dynamic path planning, local goal-seeking, safe obstacle-avoidance, behavior fusion, and autonomous robot control. The RFID module for global pose initialization is presented based on the RSSI measurements, the proposed calibration method and least square method. With the gross initial robot pose, accurate robot localization and automatic mapping are achieved by fusing the RFID data and laser scanning measurements utilizing an extended Kalman filter. The global path planning algorithm is generated by dynamic programming method. The Petri-net model is employed to construct the event-driven logic control sequence from the present states of the robot and assigned tour missions, thus achieving autonomous navigation and high-level control. An operational scenario for human-robot interaction is stipulated for the robot; the scenario can be accomplished by combining teleoperation, facial expression, dual-arm swing, static exploration mode and dynamic tour-guide mode. The human-robot interaction system is designed to attract attention of visitors, and further increase funny interactions between the robot and the visitors. Several experimental results are conducted to confirm the efficacy of the proposed methods and techniques. These techniques are expected useful and effective in designing a pragmatic tour-guide robot.
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