Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/74584
標題: 易道之「懼以終始」論述
作者: 劉錦賢 
關鍵字: 周易;道德;憂患意識;戒懼;敬慎
出版社: 臺中市:國立中興大學文學院
Project: 興大人文學報, Volume 34, Page(s) 1-44.
摘要: 
Chou Yi containing its contents and Ten Wings to interpretations the contents, is the work compiled by wisdom of sages of generations. The regents in the period of domination of early Chou realized the ever-changing fate, their conceptions of cultivating virtues cautiously and respectfully can often be seen in The Book of Songs and Shangshu. Chou Yi finished in early Chou Dynasty, proves that the author’s concerns and anxiety. As Confucians rises, Confucius cares about “people don’t neither cultivate moralities nor pursue real knowledge”, and Manfucius mentions “one of fine virtues in all his life worries that he does not do his responsibilites to the society,” both respond to “wariness” of Doctrine of the Mean and “no cheating but honesty and sincerity” of Great Learning. In such thought trends and backgrounds, the author of Yi Chuan shows his fears in his interpretations.
Hexagram Judgments of Chou Yi admonish people by its dread messages; the author of Tuan treats each hexagram as the gist for one to cultivate morality, therefore, it works greatly on self-cultivation and national governance. Every first and last lines of hexagrams depict the “the beginning and the result” of the development of an event; Line Judgement as well as Minor Image thus instructs people to start with cogitation and finish with respect. Generally speaking, middle lines of hexagrams describe good fortune, therefore, the thrid and fourth Lines pour out more fear than the second and fifth Lines. The author of Great Image roots in higher moral senses, with imagination, combines the definitions of name of the images, and their external and metaphorical images as well, to express his philosophies toward life and politics, such as “one of honor shall not fold his bright virtues to the rulers and people”, “cultivate and introspect with serious attention”, “to take precaution”, and “treat subordinates well and assure people a good life.”
His Tsu quotes what Confucius’s statement of protecting oneself by caution and respect, which illustrates Confucius’ philosophies, gives much more precise explications to line judgements than to Minor Image, to enrich the contents of Chou Yi. Through this study, His Tsu, Chapter 11, vol.2 adopts “keeping caution and respect from the beginning to the end” as the principle of Yi, which is sufficiently proved.

《周易》包括其書之經文與釋經之十翼,為前後數代聖哲智慧累積之作。周初執政者有感於「天命靡常」,其敬慎修德之觀念,每見於《詩》、《書》之中。《周易》經文成於周初,故作者具憂患意識。及儒學興趣,孔子以「德之不修,學之不講」為憂,而孟子言「君子有終身之憂」,此與〈中庸〉所謂戒慎恐懼,〈大學〉所謂誠意不欺者,前後相承。《易傳》作者,在如此之思想背景下釋經,故處處顯示憂欋之意。
《周易》卦辭每有危懼之言,讓人知所警惕。〈彙傳〉作者則將各卦皆視作吾人進德修業之憑藉,是故對修己治國之道,多所發揮。而各卦之初、上二爻,可謂事物發展之「本末」,故其〈爻辭〉與〈小象〉教人要慎始而敬終。《周易》各卦之爻,大體居中得吉,故三、四兩爻之經、傳文字所示憂懼之意,較二、五兩爻為明顯。〈大象〉作者則本於崇高之道德意識,綜合本卦卦名之義與其內外卦之卦象,加以想象,以表達其人生與政治哲理,如自昭明德,恐懼修省,防範未然,厚下安民等。
〈繫辭〉所引「子曰」以明敬慎保身之言,可謂孔子思想之闡發。其對部分爻辭伸述之義,較〈小象〉為詳盡,因以豐富《周易》之內涵。而〈繫辭下.十一章〉以「懼以終始」為「易之道」之云,經本文之論述,可以充分得到證明。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/74584
Appears in Collections:第34期
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