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標題: 生物科技與文學創作
作者: 董崇選
關鍵字: 生物科技;目的;文學創作;有機形式;文;語碼;系統;重組DNA;轉寫;翻譯;Biotechnology;Creative writing;Organic form;Text;Code;System;Recombinant DNA;Transcription;Translation;End
出版社: 臺中市:國立中興大學文學院
Project: 興大人文學報, Volume 37, Page(s) 327-343.
生物科技與文學創作皆「生命科學」:前者處?生物之形性,後者表現生活之樣式。學門相互影響:文學之「有機形式」一語?自生物學。萬物皆為「文」(text),皆選擇與組合成分之結果。文學由語言組成,生物由細胞組成。製造文學作品與製造基因產品均需判斷?與想像?,誠如重組DNA需有裁剪與黏著??酵素。語言與基因之「文」皆有「語碼」(code),皆有意符與意旨,皆由符號排成直線結構群。基因訊息由DNA「轉寫」為RNA,再「翻譯」成蛋白結構体,有如語文由意義轉成語音再翻成字形。基因工程也在「書寫」或「重寫」語碼,以改變「訊息」。文學創作與基因工程皆牽涉極複雜之「系統之系統」:各層次之創作文本由音素、形素、義素等各種有限之基本單位組成無限之創作個体,各層次之生物結構体亦由各種有限之基本單位 (包括基因)組成無限之生物体。無?如何,人?乃「第二個神」,是另一創造者。只是創造皆有危險:文學創作與生物科技產品皆有?有弊,皆應興?除弊以保「生之?息」。

Biotechnology and creative writing are both “life science”: one handles life forms, and the other expresses life manners. Biological ideas and terms have entered literature: “organic form,” for instance, is an ideal for creative writing. Everything is a text. A literary text is made up of sounds, shapes, and senses: it is a verbal structure resulting from the selection and combination of its elements. Biotechnology uses the same basic modes of selection and combination. In gene cloning, it selects genes and combines genes by inserting certain genes into a genetic sequence. Both biotechnology and creative writing need judgment to cut apart and imagination to put together, just as recombinant DNA technology needs one category of enzymes to act as scissors and another category to act as glue. In cutting and gluing, both creative writers and biotechnologists must consider the problem of “homogeneity or heterogeneity.” Both a literary text and a genetic text involve a coding process. A literary text is a linear sequence of words, which are signs with sounds and shapes functioning as signifiers and with senses as the signified. A genetic text is also a linear sequence with genetic substance signifying genetic content. The flow of genetic information involves the transcription of RNA for DNA and the translation of RNA into protein, just like the transcription of sounds for senses and the translation of sounds into shapes. So, a biotechnologist “writes” or “rewrites” a sequence of amino acids while a creative writer writes or rewrites a sequence of words. This writing or rewriting process involves, in fact, very complicated systems of systems. A literary text has its sound system based on phonemes, shape system based on graphemes, and sense system based on sememes, stylemes, ideologemes, etc. A genetic text has its various genomes with various combinations of amino acids, which contain codons, which contain nucleotides. The act of creating literary or genetic texts has never ceased and will never end. Man is a “Second Deity,” a ceaseless creator like God. But creation always has its danger. Writers may produce literary works detrimental to society; biotechnologists may create genetic products harmful to the world. So, both biotechnology and creative writing should have the common end of ensuring a good end for all life in the cosmos.
Appears in Collections:第37期

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