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標題: 反抗者之死?:論傅科(Michel Foucault)最後兩本作品在其主體研究上的意義
Death of the Revolting Man?: On the Significance of Foucault's Last Works in His Study of Subjectivity
作者: 周淑娟
關鍵字: 傅科;Foucault;性史;快感的享用;自我的呵護;主體化過程;決定論;自我主宰;抗爭;The history of sexuality;The use of pleasure;The care of self;Subjectivity;Determinism;Genealogical study;Agency;Revolt
出版社: 臺中市:國立中興大學文學院
Project: 興大人文學報, Volume 39, Page(s) 465-494.
就在辭世不久前,傅科(Foucault)發表了《性史》(The History of Sexuality)系列的第二與第三冊:《快感的享用》 (The Use of Pleasure) and與《自我的呵護》(The Care of the Self)兩本書。這兩本書再次引起了廣大的震撼。然而這次引起迴響的原因卻不似早先《規訓與懲罰》(Discipline and Punish)與性史第一冊出版時般是因激賞而起。相反地,傅科的讀者這次感受到的是挫敗與迷惘。在八年的等待之後,讀者看到的是兩本風格平鋪直敘、文字平凡無奇的歷史性描述。往昔思緒敏銳、文字細膩但又充滿顛覆性格的傅科已不復可見。傅科如此出人意表的轉變在學術界對其主體學說的討論開啟了新的爭議。是否傅科晚年老朽,失去了與社會抗爭的活力?這兩本書是否揭示了這位充滿爭議性的法國思想家社會批判生涯的反高潮?抑或傅科改變了他對人類主體化過程的看法?本論文以傅科學說中主體自由與決定論的概念為辯證主軸,強調這位法國思想家一路走來,立場始終如一;他的最後兩本著作並未如某些研究者所言,是對他先前主體學說提出修正,更不似其他研究者所說,傅科晚年的立場與先前大相逕庭。相反地,傅科自始自終都在揭示自我主宰的可能性,而抗爭便是傅科展現主體自由的途徑。與許多人的看法大為不同的是,傅科最後兩本書並不是藉由描述上古時期人類不受社會約制,自主地調整個體與自我關係的狀態;相反地,他仍在原有的主體學說框架內,勾勒人類社會另一種建構主體的機制。藉此研究,本論文希望對傅科主體學說中眾說紛紜的若干概念加以梳理並有所澄清。

Shortly before his death, Foucault published his last complete works: The Use of Pleasure and The Care of the Self, volume two and three of his research on the history of sexuality. Again, these two books greatly surprised his readers. But this time the surprise has a different cause. It was no longer admiration or enchantment, as had been evoked by Discipline and Punish and The History of Sexuality: Volume I. Instead, people were frustrated and perplexed. After eight years' waiting, what they faced now was two historical descriptions in a plain, straightforward style distinct from that of the previous two books. The reader could no longer see the sharp, subtle, subversive Foucault. This change of Foucault triggered new debates among critics on the perception of the Foucaultian subjectivity. Was Foucault old and inclined to reconcile with the society? Did these two books mark the anti-climactic ending of Foucault's academic career? Did Foucault change his view on human subjectivation? Adopting a dialogical view about the Foucaultian idea of "freedom and determinism," this paper will read these two books as a continuation of rather than a revision or rupture in Foucault's genealogical study. Through this reading, this paper attempts to tackle and clarify some confused responses to Foucault's investigation into human subjectivity and argues that, all along, Foucault has never denied the possibility of agency as some critics have claimed. Revolt is Foucault's way of demonstrating human agency. Opposite to many people's wrong perception of Foucault's last books, the freedom granted to the Greek elite for the arts of existence is not true freedom in Foucault's eyes. Instead of giving an example of a society of less subjugation of man, Foucault is describing another form of normalizing mechanism imposed on the subject.
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