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標題: 論劉卲《人物志》的性質目的及其修養論
作者: 呂光華
關鍵字: Liu Shao;劉卲;Ren Wu Zhi;Records of personages;Aptitude;Aptitude theory;Self-cultivation theory;人物志;才性;才性理論;修養論
出版社: 臺中市:國立中興大學文學院
Project: 興大人文學報, Volume 43, Page(s) 79-104.
This thesis probes the essence and the self-cultivation theory in Ren Wu Zhi (Records of Personages) by Liu Shao, and states that they bear a close relationship to each other. Due to differences in interpreting the essence of Ren Wu Zhi, when one explains and comprehends it in various ways, one's viewpoint on self-cultivation will differ. This thesis holds that Liu Shao obviously wrote the book for political and practical purposes. However, from an aesthetic angle, some scholars regard its essential purpose as pursuing ideal character and building the essence of an aesthetic state of character and life. This thesis considers that this point of view is totally incompatible with Ren Wu Zhi's utilitarian functionality to politics and strong cognition. As for the self-cultivation theory in Ren Wu Zhi, Liu Shao's aptitude theory is usually called "fatalism" he asserts that a person's talent is a natural gift influenced by "yin yang wu xing" (negative, positive and the five elements). Nonetheless, it is not totally proper to label Liu Shao's aptitude theory "fatalism." Strictly speaking, the natural gifts mentioned by Liu Shao infer only one kind of aptitude and potentiality. An acquired consequence possibly develops positively or negatively, such as that one may never deny there is an existence of a field in which a self-cultivation theory can be discussed. The key point is "learning," which determines natural gifts to develop positively or negatively after birth. We can say that "learning" in this book means self-cultivation after one is born. Liu Shao cites four principles of Heaven and Earth: i.e. metaphysics, philosophy, ethics, and social psychology, and so-called "learning" requires these four principles. On the whole, tagging Liu Shao's aptitude theory as "fatalism" is to deny the existence of his self-cultivation theory, to overemphasize inborn determinism, and to ignore the necessity of diligent learning after birth that he doesn't exclude.

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