Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/74836
標題: 論劉卲《人物志》的性質目的及其修養論
作者: 呂光華
關鍵字: Liu Shao;劉卲;Ren Wu Zhi;Records of personages;Aptitude;Aptitude theory;Self-cultivation theory;人物志;才性;才性理論;修養論
出版社: 臺中市:國立中興大學文學院
Project: 興大人文學報, Volume 43, Page(s) 79-104.
摘要: 
This thesis probes the essence and the self-cultivation theory in Ren Wu Zhi (Records of Personages) by Liu Shao, and states that they bear a close relationship to each other. Due to differences in interpreting the essence of Ren Wu Zhi, when one explains and comprehends it in various ways, one's viewpoint on self-cultivation will differ. This thesis holds that Liu Shao obviously wrote the book for political and practical purposes. However, from an aesthetic angle, some scholars regard its essential purpose as pursuing ideal character and building the essence of an aesthetic state of character and life. This thesis considers that this point of view is totally incompatible with Ren Wu Zhi's utilitarian functionality to politics and strong cognition. As for the self-cultivation theory in Ren Wu Zhi, Liu Shao's aptitude theory is usually called "fatalism" he asserts that a person's talent is a natural gift influenced by "yin yang wu xing" (negative, positive and the five elements). Nonetheless, it is not totally proper to label Liu Shao's aptitude theory "fatalism." Strictly speaking, the natural gifts mentioned by Liu Shao infer only one kind of aptitude and potentiality. An acquired consequence possibly develops positively or negatively, such as that one may never deny there is an existence of a field in which a self-cultivation theory can be discussed. The key point is "learning," which determines natural gifts to develop positively or negatively after birth. We can say that "learning" in this book means self-cultivation after one is born. Liu Shao cites four principles of Heaven and Earth: i.e. metaphysics, philosophy, ethics, and social psychology, and so-called "learning" requires these four principles. On the whole, tagging Liu Shao's aptitude theory as "fatalism" is to deny the existence of his self-cultivation theory, to overemphasize inborn determinism, and to ignore the necessity of diligent learning after birth that he doesn't exclude.

本文探討劉卲《人物志》的性質目的及其修養論,認為《人物志》的性質目的及其修養論,密切相關。對《人物志》性質目的的看法不同,詮釋了解也就不同,而對其修養論的看法也就有差異。本文以?劉卲寫此書政治實用的目的十分明顯,然而也有學者從審美角度,認?這本書的性質目的,在於追求理想人格,建構人格生命的審美境界本體。這種看法,本文以?對政治實用功能性、認知性極強的《人物志》來說,顯得格格不入。其次,關於《人物志》的修養論,由於劉卲《人物志》的才性理論,主張一個人的才能是受陰陽五行影響,來自先天的稟賦,所以一般稱之?「命定論」,然而給劉卲的才性理論冠上一個「命定論」的名稱,卻未必完全合適。嚴格說來劉卲所說的先天的稟賦,其實只是指一種傾向、一種潛能,就後天的結果而言,它有可能往正的方向發展,也可能往負的方向發展,此間不得不承認存在一個談修養論的空間。先天的稟賦,在後天是往正的方向發展,還是往負的方向發展,關鍵在「學」,「學」可以說就是劉卲《人物志》後天修養工夫之所在。劉卲總結天地之理有四,即道理、事理、義理、情理。天地既總結有此四理,則所謂學,所學亦不外是四理。總之稱劉卲的才性理論?命定論,是否定劉卲《人物志》修養論的存在空間,過度的強化了先天決定論的色彩,而否定了劉卲並不排斥的後天力學的必要性。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/74836
Appears in Collections:第43期
文學院

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