Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/74859
標題: 明末浯澎遊兵的建立與廢除(1616-1621年)
作者: 何孟興
關鍵字: 澎湖;Peng-hu;廈門;浯澎遊兵;水師;Xia-men;Wu-peng Armada
出版社: 臺中市:國立中興大學文學院
Project: 興大人文學報, Volume 46, Page(s) 127-162.
摘要: 
Owing to Japan's invasion of Taiwan in 1616 AD, the Ming government decided to reorganize the tasks of the coastal defense in Fu-jian, thus one of the tasks was to consolidate the forces on the two sides across the Taiwan Strait. The consolidation would combine the navy in Xia-men and the navy in Peng-hu to form the Wu-peng Armad in order to firmly control the Taiwan Strait and to protect people living around the coast of the mainland. However, there were a lot of problems with this arrangement. The isolation of Peng-hu from the mainland made communication and transportation difficult. Besides, the shortage in the system of the Wu-peng Armada led to the new arrangement not working as designed. As a result, this ground breaking arrangement was abandoned by the Ming government in less than six years.

明神宗萬曆四十四年(1616),日本官員村山等安派遣船隊南下臺灣,造成閩海局勢大為緊張,亦讓不法活動頻繁的臺灣,引起明政府的重視。因為,臺灣距離內地不算太遠,若倭人控有臺灣,不僅可在此進行走私貿易,且可由此渡海西犯福州、福寧、漳州、泉州等地,危害甚大,加上,明政府認定村山倭船南犯,志在併吞臺灣,為此,決意戮力海防的佈署,並對福建海防進行整頓。其中,最引人注目的是,福建巡撫黃承玄以「分不如合」的佈防概念出發,改善水寨、遊兵內部的缺失,達到「合兵禦敵,機動出擊」的目標。不僅如此,黃還對澎湖、臺灣的防務佈署進行調整,認為「澎湖之險,患在寡援」是問題的根源,故將今日臺灣海峽東、西兩側的兵力-即澎湖、浯銅二支遊兵做一整合,並加入新軍,成立新的水師-「浯澎遊兵」,包括有澎湖遊、衝鋒遊和浯澎遊指揮官直屬的標船等三支武力,其中,澎湖、衝鋒二遊分別扮演「正」、「奇」二兵,讓澎湖防務到達「戰術完整,獨立作戰」的層次目標;同時,並提升浯澎遊指揮官的職等為「欽依」把總,以重其事權;尤其是,此時的澎湖有正面當敵的澎湖遊,澎、廈海域又有哨巡策應的衝鋒遊,此一「正、奇並置,固守澎湖」的佈署方式,讓「海中」的澎湖兵防,走上「內岸化」的道路,此在明代福建海防史上不僅別具意義,同時,亦顯示明政府正努力去嘗試,「如何較為有效地去掌握今日的臺灣海峽?」進而為海峽對岸的內地百姓,提供更為安全的保障。但是,澎湖遠處海外,交通往來困難,明帝國官僚體系運作能力……等問題依然存在,同時,又因浯澎遊兵制度結構上有著不小的缺陷,導致此一「廈、澎兵防合一」的跨海兵制,未能發揮太大的功能,故在熹宗天啟元年(1621)時,浯澎遊兵便被撤廢改制,前後存在的時間不到六年。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/74859
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