Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/74917
標題: 儒家之知幾保命觀
作者: 劉錦賢 
關鍵字: 儒者;知幾;保命;全身;免禍;善終
出版社: 臺中市:國立中興大學文學院
Project: 興大人文學報, Volume 32, Page(s) 89-125.
摘要: 
Catastrophes often sprout as people eagerly strive to chase for self benefits. Yet, Confucianists either treat people or manage affairs with the following principles to keep disasters away:
a. Cautous behavior: A Confucianist is rigorous to his words and behavior in case of making enemies with others as well as damaging himself. He introspects all the time, never speaks flightily and rashly, and with obedience, no pride, no bumble, behaves himself leisurely and comfortably. .
b. Prudence and tolerance: Treat people with generosity and respect. Tolerance brings up safety, and prudence, the peace. Both the characteristic properties are spontaneous preciousness. Showing the tolerance but furious anger in mind; prudent appearance but with inward pride, both the imbalance conditions will lead to malignity.
c. Bend and extension: A Confucianist always aims at self-cultivation and society improvements. To him, serving as an officer is to practice his idea instead of to pursue personal reputation and wealthy. Therefore, he must be able to judge, go toward on and withdraw. Therefore, he must be able to judge, to toward on and withdraw back from his road leading to his target, without longing for the famous name or abundant treasures which may bring one to insult even death.
d. Staying vigilant in peace: A Confucianist keeps his consciousness of disasters in mind whenever staying in good or bad time. One easily becomes ignorant and resigns to the circumstances when being in good time, and the ruin and corruption often hide at the back of happiness. Therefore, one staying in alertness all the time can never be anxious.
e. Timely appropriate values: One existing in this world, only being with wisdom and virtue, can take proper actions than ruddiness generating damages. A being aware of everything, one can always judge correctly at the moment.
f. Prevention is the best than ever: Merely people themselves provoke either disasters or fortune. The three-foot snow is caused not by just one day of coldness. If one is able to foresee everything for prevention, he then can well project before procedure, and keep mind clean and calm and then speak to others; thus, the misfortune will be deformed.
With brilliant conceptions the Confucianist realizes worldly wisdom. His behavior, as well as word, definitely follows the heavenly principles; also he well understands the happiness is his only choice, which is called “be aware of tiny evidence to save life”.

人與人相處,由於彼此各為己圖,輒啟爭端,而致禍患。儒者之待人處事,其免禍全身之計,有以下諸端:
一、謹言慎行:言行須慎重,以免厚積怨怒於人,反傷自己。須時時反躬自省,言不輕浮,行為悖逆,不亢不卑,從容自在。
二、容忍謙卑:須待人寬厚,對人敬重;能忍則安,能謙則和。二者貴在出乎自然,否則外忍內忿,外謙內傲,內外不諧,將致傷身。
三、能進能退:修身與淑世乃儒者之用心,仕勻在實現理想,不為個人之名利。故必衡量情勢,可褣方進,當退則退,不貪慕名位,而致辱身喪命。
四、操危慮患:不論處境之順逆,皆須有更患意識。在順境中每易流於苟安,因而隱伏滅亡之幾,頁須警覺。有終身之憂,方能無一朝之患。
五、衡審機宜:立身處世,須兼具德慧,方能凡事採取適當之行動,不致因魯莽而造成損傷。只要良知不昧,對任何事情,當下皆能判斷正確。
六、防微杜漸:禍福之來,惟人自召;冰凍三尺,非一日之寒。如能洞燭機先,預為之防,謀定而後動,平心而後語,則可以化禍患於無形。
儒者通達人情,智慧明察,其言行舉措,必須乎天理,知所抉擇,以自求多福,是謂知幾以保命。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/74917
Appears in Collections:第32期
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