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Design and Implementation of Low Ripple PFM Step-up DC/DC Converter
|關鍵字:||脈波寬度調變;PWM;脈波頻率調變;PFM||出版社:||電機工程學系所||引用:|| R. W. Erickson and D. Maksimovic, Fundamentals of Power Electronics, 2nd Ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001.  Marty Brown, Power Supply Cookbook, 2nd Ed, Newnes, 2001.  Maxim, “Regulator Topologies for Battery-Powered Systems,” Application Note 660, Jan. 2001.  G. A. Rincon-Mora and P. E. Allen, “A low-voltage, low quiescent current, low drop-out regulator,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.33, pp.36-44, Jan. 1998.  N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland, and W. P. Robbins, Power Electronics: Converters, Applications, and Design, Second Ed., New York: Wiley & Sons, 1995.  H. W. Whittington, B. W. Flynn, and D. E. Macpherson, Switched Mode Power Supply: design and construction 2nd edition., Research Sutdues Press Ltd., 1997.  A. I. Pressman, Switching Power Supply Design, Second Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1999.  W.-L. Huang, A High-Efficiency CMOS DC-DC Switching Voltage Regulator for voltage Applications, M.S. thesis, National Cheng-Kung University, July 2004.  K. Kester and B. Erisman, “Switching Regulators,” Analog Devices Technical Library on Power Management, 1999.  C. F. Lee and P. K. T. Mok, “A monolithic current-mode DC-DC converter with on-chip current-sensing technique,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.39, pp.3-14, Jan. 2004.  C. Y. Leung, P.K.T. Mok, and K. N. Leung, “A 1-V integrated current-mode boost converter in standard 3.3/5-V CMOS technologies,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol.40, pp.2265-2274, Nov. 2005.  P. L. Miribel-Catala, M. Puig-Vidal, J. S. Marti, P. Goyhenetche, and X. Q. Nguyen, “An integrated digital PFM DC-DC boost converter for a power management application: a RGB backlight LED system driver,” IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, vol.1, pp.37-42, Nov. 2002.  “DC-DC Converter Tutorial,” Maxim Semiconductor Application Note, Maxim Inc., 2000.  R. Erickson and D. Maksimovic, “High efficiency DC-DC converters for battery-operated systems with energy management,” Worldwide Wireless Communications, Annual Reviews on Telecommunications, 1995.  B. Arbetter, R. Erickson, and D. Maksimovic, “DC-DC converter design for battery-operated system,” IEEE Power Electronics Specialist Conf., vol.1, pp.103-109, 1995.  江定達,“可適應性直流對直流升壓轉換器,”國立中興大學碩士論文,中華民國九十五年六月。  A. Barrado, R. Vazquez, A. Lazaro, J. Pleite, and E. Olias, "Fast transient response with combined linear-non-linear control applied to buck converters," IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf., vol.4, pp.1587-1592, June 2002.  A. Barrado, R. Vazquez, A. Lazaro, J. Pleite, E. Olias, and J. Pleite, "Linear-non-linear control applied to buck converters to get fast transient response," in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Industrial Electronics, vol.3, pp.999-1003, May 2002.  A. Barrado, A. Lazaro, J. Pleite, R. Vazquez, J. Vazquez, and E. Olias, “Linear-non-linear control (LnLc) for DC-DC buck converters: stability and transient response analysis,” Nineteenth Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conf. Exposition (APEC ''04), vol.2, pp.1329-1335, 2004.  B. Razavi, Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits, Mc Graw Hill, June 2002.  J. Sheng, Z. Chen, and B. Shi, “A 1V supply area effective CMOS bandgap reference,” Proceedings of 5th International Conference on ASIC, vol.1, pp.619-622, Oct. 2003.  黃致喨,“適用於電池操作裝置之低電壓零靜態電流脈波頻率調變升壓式轉換器,”國立中興大學碩士論文,中華民國九十五年七月。||摘要:||
在設計上，我們使用台積電CMOS 0.35um 2P4M 5V製程實現，晶片面積約1.4*1.0mm2，使用可適應性電流限制電路，隨著不同的負載電流而提供適當的感應電流值，在負載電流10mA下，輸出漣波電壓為8mV，比傳統PFM的漣波降低了70%左右。再者，藉著使用一暫態改善電路，可使暫態響應在輸出電壓容許的 內，將反應時間從90us降為0us。而整體系統能量轉換效率最高可達82%。
This thesis mainly studies the circuit design of the DC-DC boost converter. The mainstream control methods are pulse width modulation(PWM) and pulse frequency modulation(PFM). Both of them have merits and drawbacks. In this thesis, we will aim at improving the PFM control method. Low ripple and fast transition response will be the goal.
The merit of the PFM control method is that the efficiency is quite high under light load. The shortcomings are that the efficiency will be reduced with the increasing load, and the output ripple is too big. Therefore, we utilize an adaptive current-limited circuit to improve ripple. An important factor which influences the output ripple is that a large current flows into the output filter capacitor to cause the ripple to be very big. However, when the load does not need too much current, the unnecessary energy can only release slowly. It will be good if the current flows into the output filter capacitor is just enough for load. This method accomplishes that the current flow into output filter capacitor will be reduced greatly under light load, and so as ripple. But this control method causes transient response time, and then we use another circuit to solve this problem.
In this design, we use TSMC 0.35um 2P4M 5V CMOS technology. The chip area is about 1.4*1.0mm2. The adaptive current-limited circuit is used to act according to the different load automatically. The output ripple is 8mV at 10mA loading current, which is reduced about 70%compared with the conventional PFM. By using the transient improving circuit, we can reduce transient response time from 90us to 0us at variations of the output voltage. The system efficiency can be up to 82%.
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