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標題: CMOS微型化Balun之設計
Design of small Chip-Area Balun in CMOS Technology
作者: 賴思涵
Lai, Sih-Han
關鍵字: CMOS;分波器;transformers balun;transformers;balun;變壓器
出版社: 電機工程學系所
引用: [1] T.O.Dickson, M.-A.LaCroix, S.Boret, D.Gloria, R.Beerkens, S.P.Voinigescu, “30-100-GHz Inductors and Transformers for Millimeter-Wave (Bi)CMOS Integrated Circuits”, IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques,VOL.53,NO.1,January 2005. [2] F.W.Grover, “Inductance Calculations working formulas and tables” [3] David K. Cheng,李永勳 譯 電磁學-2nd ed, 台灣培生教育, 2002年8月. [4] Huang, X.; Ngo, K.D.T.; “Design technique for a spiral planar winding with geometric radii”, IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, April 1996 Page(s):825 – 830. [5] J.R.Long, “Monolithic Transformers for Silicon RFIC Design”, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,VOL.35,NO.9,September 2000. [6] B.Razavi, “RF Microelectronics” [7] E.Frlan, S.Meszaros, M.Cuhaci, J.Wight, “Computer-aided design of square spiral transformers and inductors”, in Proc.IEEE MTT-S,June 1989, pp.611-664. [8] A.Boulouard, M.Le Rouzic, “Analysis of rectangular spiral transformers for MMIC applications,” IEEE Trans.Microwave Theory Tech.,Vol.37, pp.1257-1260,Aug.1989. [9] G.G.Rabjohn, “Monolithic microwave transformers,” M.Eng.thesis,Carleton University,Ottawa,ON,Canada,Apr.1991. [10] J.R.Long, M.A.Copeland, “Modeling of monolithic inductors and transformers for silicon RFIC design,” in Proc.IEEE MTT-S Int. Symp. Technologies for Wireless Applications, Vancouver, BC,Canada,Feb, 1955, pp.129-134. [11] J.R.Long, M.A.Copeland, “The modeling,characterization,and design of monolithc inductors for Silicon RFICs,” IEEE J.Solid-State Circuis, Vol.32,pp.357-369,March 1997. [12] F.M.Rotella, C.Cismaru, Y.G.Tkachenko, Y.Cheng, P.J.Zanpardi, “Characterization, Design, Modeling, and Model Validation of Silicon on-Wafer M:N Balun Components Under Matched and Unmatched Conditions” IEEE Journal Of Solid-State Circuits, Vol.41, NO.5, May 2006. [13] Z.Tas, “Balun Design for Silicon RF Integrated Circuis” IEEE International Conference on Integration Technolngy March 20-24,2007. [14] T.Liang, J.Gillis, D.Wang, P.Copper, “Design and Modeling of Compact On-Chip Transformer/Balun using Multi-Level Metal Windings for RF Integrated Circuits” 2001 IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium. [15] W.Z.Chen, W.H.Chen, K.C.Hsu, “Three-Dimensional Fully Symmetric Inductors,Transformer,and Balun in CMOS Technology” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems,Vol.54,No.7,July 2007. [16] C.Tsui, K.Y.Tong, “Modelling of multilayer on-chip transformers” IEE Proc-Microw.Antennas Propag.Vol.15.,No.5,October 2006 [17] K. Shibata, K. Hatori, Y. Tokumitsu, and H. Komizo, “Microstrip Spiral Directional Coupler”, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 29, July 1981. [18] M. W. Geen, G. J. Green, R. G. Arnold, J. A. Jenkins, and R. H. Jansen, “Miniature multilayer spiral inductors for GaAs MMICs,” in Proc. GaAsIC Symp., Oct. 1989, pp. 303–306. [19] S.S. Mohan, C.P.Yue, M.del Mar Hershenson, S.S.Wong, T.H.Lee, “Modeling and characterization of on-chip transformers,” in Proc.IEDM, Dec. 1998, pp. 531–534. [20] Ali. M. Niknejad, R. G. Meyer, “Analysis of Eddy-Current Losses Over Conductive Substrates with Applications to Monolithic Inductors and Transformers,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 49 No. 1,January 2001,pp.166-176. [21] C.P.Yue, S.S.Wong, “On-Chip Spiral Inductors with Patterned Ground Shields for Si-Based RF IC’s,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol.33,No.5,May 1998. [22] Hector J. De Los Santos, “On the Ultimate Limits of IC Inductors-An RF MEMS Perspective,” IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conferencr 2002 ,pp. 1027-1031. [23] O.E.Gharniti, E.kerherve, J.B.Begueret, “Modeling and Characterization of On-ChipTransformers for Silicon RFIC,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol.55,No.4,April 2007. [24] H.M.Hsu, C.W.Tseng, “Design of On-Chip Transformer With Various CoilWidths to Achieve Minimal Metal Resistance,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol.28,No.11,Novermber 2007. [25] H.M.Hsu, C.W.Tseng, “Design of On-Chip Transformer With Various Coil Widths to Achieve Minimal Metal Resistance,” IEEE Electron Device Letters,Vol.28,No.11,November 2007. [26] A.Zolfaghari, A.Chan, B.Razavi, “Stacked Inductors and Transformers in CMOS Technology,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Ciccuits,Vol.36,No.4, April 2001. [27] W.Z.Chen, K.C.Hsu, “Miniaturized 3-Dimensional Transformer Design,” IEEE 2005 Custom Integrated Circuits Conference. [28] A.Italia, F.Carrara, E.Ragonese, T.Biondi, A.Scuderi, G.Palmisano, “The transformer characteristic resistance and its application to the performance analysis of silicon integrated transformers”, IEEE Radio Frequency integrated Circuits, 2005. [29] I.Aoki, S.D.Kee, D.B. Rutledge, A.Hajimiri, “Distributed Active Transformer—A New Power-Combining and Impedance-Transformation Technique,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques , Vol.50,No.1,January 2002 Page(s):316 – 331 [30] Heng-Ming Hsu; Ming-Ming Hsieh; Chien-Wen Tseng; Kuo-Hsun Huang, “High coupling transformer in CMOS technology,” 2006 IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium, 11-13 June Page(s):4 pp. [31] M.Danesh, J.R.Long, R.A.Handaway, D.L.Harame, “A Q-Factor Enhancement Technique for MMIC Inductors,” 1998,IEEE MTT-S Digest [32] Ming-Hsiang Cho, Guo-Wei Huang, Chia-Sung Chiu, Kun-Ming Chen, “Unified Parasitic De-Embedding Methodology of On-Wafer Multi-Port Device Characterization,” 2005 IEEE [33] K.Chong, Y.H Xie, “High-Performance On-Chip Transformers,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol.26.No.8,August 2005 [34] J.Wang, W.Zhang, Z.Yu, “The Design of a Planar-Spiral Transformers Balun Used in RF/MW Based on 0.13um CMOS Process” IEEE Conference [35] G.Felic, E.Skafidas, “An Integrated Transformer Balun for 60GHz Silicon RFIC Design” 2007 IEEE Conference [36] S.C.Tseng, C.Meng, C.K.Wu, G.W.Huang, “Low-Voltage GaINP/GaAs HBT Wideband Gilbert Downconverter Using Transformer RF Balun” 2007 IEEE Conference [37] W.Bakalski, W.Simbutger, R.Thuringer, A.Vasylyev, A.L.Scholtz, “A Fully Integrated 5.3-GHz 2.4-V 0.3-W SiGe Bipolar Power Amplifier With 50-Ω Output” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits,Vol.39,No.7,July 2004 [38] O.E.Gharniti, E.Kerherve, J.B.Begueret, “Modeling and Characterization of On-Chip Transformers for Silicon RFIC” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques,Vol.55,No,4.April 2007

This thesis includes five topics. Firstly, the stacked Balun structure will be addressed. The measurement shows that the stacked Balun structure not only improvements the coupling coefficient with 58% but also saves layout area with 80% comparing with planar structure. Therefore, the high coupling and low cost of Balun is achieved in CMOS technology. Afterward, the stacked Baluns with different coil width are designed to investigate the performance. Measurement shows that the wide metal coil is suitable to be operated at low frequency and the narrow one is suitable to be operated at high frequency.
The Balun is designed for the high coupling and the high turn number ratio is depicted in the third topic. The range of turn number ratio is from 1:0.6:0.6 to 1:2.6:2.6 by compared with traditional Balun[5] . The proposed device decreases the chip area with 90%. The stacked symmetry would be discussed in the fourth topic, this structure is bilateral symmetry. It is easier to design that the phase and amplitude imbalance. The phase and amplitude imbalance are small than 0.5 degree and 0.4 dB, respective. Based on proposed structure, the multi-turn layout is implemented to obtain high turn number ratio and high coupling coefficient in the future work.
Finally, the design of the coil width is addressed to get the minimum resistance. It improves the quality factor of transformer by keeping the same self inductance. The measurement results show that the improvement of metal resistance approximates to the value of 12%.
其他識別: U0005-0108200814300500
Appears in Collections:電機工程學系所

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