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標題: 應用超音波及雷射掃描器於自動導航車之姿態追蹤及初值化
Pose-Tracking and Initialization of an Autonomous Mobile Robot Using Ultrasonics and Laser Scanner
作者: 黃金漢
Wong, Kim-Hon
關鍵字: pose-tracking;姿態追蹤;pose initialization;mobile robot;ultrasonics;laser scanner;姿態初值化;移動式機器人;超音波;雷射掃描器
出版社: 電機工程學系
本論文旨在探討分別應用兩種外部感測器:超音波及雷射掃描器,於自動導航車姿態追蹤與姿態初值化之方法學與實現技術。本文首先發展一種以FPGA為基礎的超音波姿態追蹤系統,透過超音波飛行時間(time of flight)測量法,並結合模糊適應增廣訊息濾波技術(fuzzy adaptive extended information filtering)來增進姿態估測的精確度與強健度。模糊適應增廣訊息濾波技術在於避免非線性增廣訊息濾波技術的發散問題。其次,本文提出一種以矩形模型及2D雷射掃描器為基礎的低複雜性和精確的姿態追蹤演算法,並結合增廣型卡爾曼濾波策略(extended Kalman filter)。最後,在環境模型已知的情況下,本文另提出一種以2D雷射掃描器為基礎的姿態初值化演算法,以便決定自動導航車在環境中的姿態。透過電腦模擬及實驗數據足以證明本論文所提之姿態追蹤與姿態初值化技術的可行性與有效性。

This thesis develops methodologies and techniques for pose-tracking and pose initialization of an autonomous mobile robot (AMR) using two different external sensors: ultrasonics and laser scanner. First, a novel FPGA-based ultrasonic pose-tracking system by fusing the time-of-flight (TOF) readings together with the FAEIF algorithm is proposed to improve the accuracy and robustness of pose estimation for the AMR. The FAEIF-based sensor fusion approach is presented to circumvent the nonlinear filter divergence problems. Second, a low-complexity and accurate pose-tracking EKF algorithm is proposed based on rectangular model and a 2-D laser scanner. Finally, a pose initialization scheme based on a 2-D laser scanner is presented to determine the initial pose of the AMR given that the environmental model is known. Numerous simulations and experimental results are provided to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed pose-tracking and pose initialization methods.
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