Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: 大學圖書館數位參考諮詢服務評鑑指標之研究
A Study of Evaluation Criteria for Digital Reference Services in Academic Libraries
作者: 洪郁棠
Hung, Yu-Tang
關鍵字: Digital Reference Service;數位參考諮詢服務;Academic Library;Library Evaluation;Reference Service Evaluation;Evaluation Criteria;大學圖書館;圖書館評鑑;參考諮詢服務評鑑;評鑑指標
出版社: 圖書資訊學研究所
引用: 一、中文 (一)圖書 王錫璋。圖書館的參考服務:理論與實務。臺北市:文史哲,民86年。 初景利。圖書館數字參考諮詢服務研究。北京:北京圖書館出版社,民93年。 林呈潢。圖書館統計標準與電子圖書館服務使用評量。臺北市:國家圖書館,民93年) 張淳淳等編著。參考資源與服務。臺北縣:空大,民92年。 莊健國。圖書館數位合作參考服務的理論與實務。臺北市:文華,民93年。 蘇小鳳。即時數位參考諮詢服務。臺北市:文華,民94年。 (二)期刊論文 吳美美。「參考服務政策與參考服務評鑑」。大學圖書館 3卷3期 (民88年7月):頁39。 呂姿玲。「參考館員評鑑之探討」。書府 9期 (民77年6月):頁52-63。 徐嘉僑。「數位參考服務在現代化圖書館的運用」。臺灣圖書館管理季刊 1卷2期 (民94年4月):頁60-76。 涂曉晴。「電子郵件參考服務—邁向虛擬參考服務之路」。國立中央圖書館臺灣分館館刊 6卷3期 (民89年3月):頁46-60。 蔡碧芳。「我國大學圖書館數位參考服務發展之研究」。大學圖書館 8卷1期 (民93年3月):頁193-215。 蔡碧芳。「淺談數位參考服務」。美國資訊科學與技術學會臺北學生分會會訊 15期 (民91年12月):頁35-56。 鍾雪珍。「E-Reference—參考服務新趨勢:從美國及上海的聯合數位參考服務談起」。國家圖書館館訊 90卷4期 (民90年11月):頁5-9。 簡玉菱、柯皓仁。「網際網路時代的參考諮詢服務—線上合作參考諮詢服務」。國家圖書館館訊 90卷4期 (民91年8月):頁1-4。 羅思嘉。「讀者對參考服務滿意度影響因素之初探」,成功大學圖書館館刊 14期(民94年6月):頁70-78。 蘇小鳳。「大學圖書館合作式即時數位參考諮詢服務」。圖書資訊學刊 1卷4期 (民93年3月):頁1-19。 蘇小鳳。「英、美學術圖書館之虛擬參考服務—從電子郵件至現場網路影音同步參考諮詢服務」。興大人文學報 32期 (民91年6月):頁557-571。 (三)博碩士論文 涂曉晴。「我國大學校院圖書館參考服務應用網際網路之研究」。國立臺灣大學圖書館學系,碩士論文,民85年。 陳育佑。「公共圖書館即時數位參考服務之使用行為研究:以臺北市立圖書館為例」。國立中興大學圖書資訊學所,碩士論文,民95年。 蔡碧芳。「我國大學圖書館數位參考服務發展之研究」。國立臺灣大學圖書資訊學所,碩士論文,民92年。 二、英文 (一)圖書 Baker, Sharon L. and F. W. Lancaster. The Measurement and Evaluation of Library Services. Washington D. C.: Information Resources Press, 1991. Blandy, Susan G.., ed. Assessment and Accountability in Reference Work. New York: Haworth Press, 1992. Bopp, Richard E. and Linda C. Smith. Reference and Information Services: an Introduction. Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, 1995. Coffman, Steve. Going Live: Starting & Running a Virtual Reference Service. Chicago: American Library Association, 2003. Hernon, Peter and Charles R. McClure. Evaluation & Library Decision Making. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation, 1990. Janes, Joseph . Introduction to Reference Work in The Digital Age. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers, 2003. Katz, Bill., ed. Digital Reference Services. Binghamton. New York: Haworth Information Press, 2004. Katz, William A. Introduction to Reference Work Vol. 2. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Lancaster, F. W. and C. W. Cleverdon. Evaluation and Scientific Management of Libraries and Information Centres. Leyden: Noordhoff, 1977. Lancaster, F. W. If you want evaluation your library…. Champaign Illinois: University of Illinois Graduate School of Library and Information Science, 1988. Lankes, R. David, John W. Collins III and Abby S. Kasowitz. Digital Reference Service in the New Millennium. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2000. Lankes, R. David., ed. Implementing Digital Reference Services. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2003. Lipow, Anne Grodzins. The Virtual Reference Librarian’s Hanbook. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2003. Meola, Marc and Sam Stormont. Starting and Operating Live Virtual Reference Services. New York: Neal-Schuman, 2002. Ronan, Jana Smith. Chat Reference: A Guide To Live Virtual Reference Services. Connecticut: Libraries Unlimited, 2003. (二)期刊論文 Abels, Eileen G. “The Electronic Mail Reference Interview.” RQ 35, no. 3 (Spring1996): 345-358. Arnold, Julie and Neal Kaske. “Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service.” Portal 5, no. 2 (April 2005): 177-193. Balas, J. “The Internet and Reference Services.” Computers in Libraries. 5, no. 6 (1995): 39-41. Bicknell, Tracy. “Focusing on Quality Reference Service.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 19 (May 1994): 77-81. Broughton, Kelly M. “Usage and User Analysis of a Real –time Digital Reference Service.” Reference Librarian 79/80 (2002/2003): 183-200 Dewdney, Patricia, and Catherine Sheldrick Ross. “Flying A Light Aircraft: Reference Service Evaluation From A User’s Viewpoint.” RQ 34 (1994): 217-230. Dougherty, Richard M. “Reference Around the Clock: Is It in Your Future?” American Libraries 33, no. 5 (May 2002): 44-46. Dream Tech Software Research Team. “Instant Message System.” Computer Communications 27, no. 1 (January 2004): 141. Durrance, Joan. “Reference Success: Does the 55 Percent Rule Tell the Whole Story?.” Library Journal 114 (April 1989): 31-36. Fishman, Diane L. “Managing the Virtual Reference Desk: How to Plan an Effective Reference E-Mail System.” Medical Reference Services Quarterly 17, no. 1 (Spring 1998): 1-2. Francoeur, Stephen. “An Analytical Survey of Chat Reference Services.” Reference Services Review 29, no. 3 (2001): 189-203. Harris, Julianna C., Jennifer Heiland, and Kathleen A. McGraw. “Promotion and Evaluation of a Virtual Live Reference Service.” Medical Reference Services Quarterly 22, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 41-56. Hernon, Peter and Charles R. McClure. “Unobtrusive Reference Testing: The 55 Percent Rule.” Library Journal 111 (April, 1986): 37-41. Howard, Ellen H. and Terry Ann Jankowski. “Reference Service via Electronic Mail.” Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 74, no. 1 (Jan 1986): 41-44. Janes, Joseph. “Digital Reference: Reference Librarian’s Experience and Attitudes.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 53, no 7 (2002): 549-566. Jay, Margaret and Sheila Webber. “Impact of Internet on Delivery of Reference Services in English Public Libraries.” Electronic Library and Information Systems 39, no. 1 (2005): 25-38. Johnson, Corey M. “Online Chat Reference Survey Results from Affiliate of Two University.” Reference & User Services Quarterly 43, no. 3 (Spring 2004): 237-247. Keys, Jacki and Fran Wilson. “Ask Now! Evaluating an Australian Collaborative Chat Reference Service: A Project Manager’s Perspective.” Australian Academic & Research Libraries 35, no. 2 (June 2004): 81-94. Kibbee, Jo David Ward, and Wei Ma. “Virtual Services, Real Data: Results of a Pilot Study.” Reference Services Review 30, no. 1 (2002): 25-36. Kloss, Louise and Yin Zhang. “An Evaluative Case Study of a Real-time Online Reference Service.” The Electronic Library 21, no. 6 (2003): 565-575. Lee, Ian J. “Do Virtual Reference Librarians Dream of Digital Reference Questions?: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Email and Chat Reference.” Australian Academic & Research Libraries, 35, no 2 (June 2004): 95-110. Lochore, Stephen. ”How Good are the Free Digital Reference Service? A Comparison of Library-Based and Expert Services.” Library Review 53, no 1 (2004): 24-29. Ronan, Jana Smith. “Chat Reference: A Guide to Live Virtual Reference Service.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 10, no. 1 (2005): 116-118. Rothstein, Samuel. “Reference Service: The New Dimension in Librarianship.” Reference Librarian 25/26 (Jan 1989): 161-172. Rothstein, Samuel. “The Measurement and Evaluation of Reference Service.” The Reference Librarian 25/26 (1989): 173-190. Rothstein, Samuel. ”The Measurement and Evaluation of Reference Service.” Library Trends 12 (Jan 1964): 456-472. Ruppel, Margie and Fody Condit Fagan. “Instant Messaging Reference: User’s Evaluation of Library Chat.” Reference Services Review 30, no. 3 (2002): 183-197. Ryan, S. “Reference Service for the Internet Community: A Case Study of the Internet Public Library Reference Division.” Library and Information Science Research. 18 (1996): 241-259. S, Houghton and A. Schmidt. “Web-Based Chat V.S. Instant Messaging.” Online 29 no, 4 (2005): 26-30. Schilling-Eccles, Katherine and Joseph J. Harzbecker. “The Use of Electronic Mail at the Reference Desk: Impact of a Computer-Mediated Communication Technology on Librarian-Client Interactions.” Medical Reference Services Quarterly 17, no. 4 (Winter 1998): 17-27. Sloan, B. “Electronic Reference Services.” Reference & User Services Quarterly 38, no. 1 (1998): 77-81. Smyth, Joanne. “Virtual Reference Transcript Analysis: A Few Models.” Search 11, no. 3 (March 2003): 27-28. Staley, Laura. “E-mail Reference: Experiences at City University.” PNLA Quarterly 62, no. 4 (1998): 20-21. Still, J. and F. Campbell. “Librarian In a Box: the Use of Electronic Mail for Reference.” Reference Services Review 21, no. 1 (1992): 15-18. Stoffel, Bruce and Toni Tucker. “Email and Chat Reference: Assessing Patron Satisfaction.” Reference Services Review 32, no. 2 (2004): 120-140. Tenopir, Carl and Ralf Neufang. “Electronic Reference Options: Tracking the Changes.” Online 19, no. 4 (July/August 1995): 67-73. Tygett, Mary, V. Lonnie Lawson and Kathleen Weessies. “Using Undergraduate Marketing Students in an Unobtrusive Reference Evaluation.” RQ 36, no. 2 (Winter 1996): 270-276. VandeCreek, Leanne M. “E-Mail Reference Evaluation: Using the Results of a Satisfaction Survey.” The Reference Librarian 93 (2006): 99-108. Ward, David. “Why Users Choose Chat: a Survey of Behavior and Motivations.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 10, no. 1 (2005): 29-46. Weise, Frieda O. and Marilyn Borgendale. “EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.” Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 74 (Oct 1986): 300-304. White, M.D. “Digital Reference Services: Framework for Analysis and Evaluation.” Library and Information Science Research. 23, no. 3(2001): 211-232. Whitlatch, Jo Bell. “Evaluating Reference Services in the Electronic Age.” Library Trends. 50, no. 2 (2001): 207-217. Whitlatch, Jo Bell. “Reference Services: Research Methodologies for Assessment and Accountability.” The Reference Librarian 38 (1992): 9-19. (三)網路資源 American Library Association. “Guidelines for Implementing and Maintainging Virtual Reference Service.” (June 2004). <> (9 Nov 2006). American Library Association. “Guidelines for Information Services.” (July 2000).<> (14 Jan 2007). Hill, J.B., Madarash-Hill, C., and Bich, NPT . “Digital Reference Evaluation: Assessing the Past to Plan for the Future.” (2003) Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship, 4, no. 2/3. <> (26 Feb 2007). McClure, Charles R. and others. “Statistic, Measure, and Quality Standards for Assessing Digital Reference Library Services: Guidelines and Procedures.” (July 30, 2002). <> (15 Jan 2007). McClure, Charles R., R. David Lankes and Online Computer Library Center, Inc. “Assessing Quality in Digital Reference Services: A Research Prospectus.” (12 Jan 2001). <> (18 Jan 2007). Pool, Kristen J. “Holistic Care of the Virtual Reference Librarian.” <> (26 Mar 2007). Washington State Library. “VET: The Virtual Evaluation Toolkit.” (July 2004). <> (26 Feb 2007). Wasik, Joann M. “Digital Reference Evaluation.” Virtual Reference Desk. <> (12 Jan 2001).

Digital reference service has become regular in university libraries. This new type service system is deemed important in Europe and US because users can ask questions without going to the librarian. The service can reach a lot more users and expand the library service.
The system should be periodically evaluated to promote service quality and efficiency to meet users' demands which will enhance university libraries' professional image and satisfaction. This study tried to generate a set of evaluation indicators of digital reference for service by the university library understanding current evaluation status, reviewing the relevant literature, and soliciting librarians opinions and suggestions through their practical experience.
This study employed questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews. The subjects are from 97 university libraries. A total of 176 copies of questionnaires were distributed and 125 copies were returned. The returned rate of questionnaire was 71%. Fixed-alternative questions were analyzed through Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) using descriptive statistics, t-test and factor analysis. Open-ended response questions were analyzed and subsumed with semi-structured interviews of six librarians into results.
Study results were as follows:
(1) Currently the most common method of evaluation in practice is to survey users' satisfaction through questionnaire and the resulted is showed with quantitative data. Only a few university libraries adopted systematic evaluation. Lack of human resource is the major obstacle. (2) The evaluation indicators were divided into four dimensions, inducing users' satisfaction, cost effectiveness, service process, and evaluation of software, a total of 55 indicators. (3) Indicators of less feasibility were usually those strongly subjective opinions and of high complexity. The personal subjective factors caused criterion inconsistency and increased difficulty of evaluation. Descriptive and basic statistical data were more feasible.
Hereby, four suggestions for university libraries were made, based on the conclusions of this study:
1. To adopt a systematic evaluation of digital reference service.
2. To expand the evaluation and to enhance the depth of evaluation content for libraries that already stasted evaluating their digital reference services.
3. To actively make digital reference service related policies.
4. To fully and accurately gather and preserve the information that evaluation needed.
其他識別: U0005-2007200801335000
Appears in Collections:圖書資訊學研究所

Show full item record

Google ScholarTM


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.