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A Secure Distributed Topology Control for Wireless Sensor Network
|關鍵字:||security in wireless ad-hoc sensor networks;無線感測網路安全;secure decentralized clustering;attacks in sensor network;安全分散式的叢集;感測器網路攻擊||出版社:||電機工程學系所||引用:|| J. N. Al-Karaki, A. E. Kamal, “Routing Techniques inWireless Sensor Networks: A Survey”, IEEE wireless communications, Volume 11, No. 6, Dec. 2004,  D. Djenouri, L. Khelladi, “A survey of security issues in mobile ad hoc and sensor networks”, Communications Surveys & Tutorials, IEEE, 2005  Chris Karlof *, David Wagner, “Secure routing in wireless sensor networks: attacks and countermeasures”, Ad Hoc Networks 1 (2003) 293-315  Chris Karlof, Naveen Sastry, David Wagner, “TinySec: A Link Layer Security Architecture for Wireless Sensor Networks “, Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on Embedded networked sensor systems, Pages: 162 - 175 , 2004  Seung Yi, Prasad Naldurg, Robin Kravets, “A Security-Aware Routing Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Wireless Networks, 2005 - Springer.  W. R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, “LEAP: efficient security mechanisms for large-scale distributed sensor networks” Conference on Computer and Communications Security, 62 - 72 , 2003  Huaizhi Li, Mukesh Singhal, “A Secure Routing Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Proceedings of the 39th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences - 2006.  Anthony D. Wood, John A. Stankovic, "Denial of Service in Sensor Networks," Computer, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 54-62, Oct., 2002.  Y. Xu, S. Bien, Y. Mori, J. Heidemann, and D. Estrin, “Topology Control Protocols to Conserve Energy in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks”, CENS Tech Report 0006, 2003  C.-Y. Wen and W. A. Sethares, “Automatic decentralized clustering for wireless sensor networks,” in EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Volume 2005, Issue 5, pp. 686-697, December 2005.  C.-Y. Wen, R. D. Morris, and W. A. Sethares, “Distance Estimation Using Bidirectional Communications Without Synchronous Clocking,” in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 1927- 1939, May 2007.  Chu, Kai-Ting, Wen, Chih-Yu, Ouyang, Yen-Chieh, and Sethares, William A. "Adaptive Distributed Topology Control for Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks" Sensor Technologies and Applications, 2007. SensorComm 2007. International Conference on, pp.378-386, Oct. 2007.  AD. Wood, JA. Stankovic, and SH. Son, “JAM: A Jammed-Area Mapping Service for Sensor Networks” Real-Time Systems Symposium, 2003. RTSS 2003. 24th IEEE, 2003.  J. Newsome, E. Shi, D. Song, and A. Perrig “The Sybil Attack in Sensor Networks: Analysis & Defenses,” Proceedings of the third international symposium on Information processing in sensor networks. 259 - 268 . 2004.  YC. Hu, A. Perrig, and DB. Johnson, “Wormhole Detection in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Department of Computer Science, Rice University, Tech. Rep.., 2002.  R. Anderson and M. Kuhn, “Tamper Resistance—a Cautionary Note,” Proc. 2nd Usenix Workshop Electronic Commerce, Usenix, Berkeley, Calif., 1996, pp. 1-11.  T. Roosta, S. Shieh, and S. Sastry, “Taxonomy of Security Attacks in Sensor Networks and Countermeasures,” IEEE, Mobicom, 2005.  Chris Karlof *, David Wagner, “Secure routing in wireless sensor networks: attacks and countermeasures,” Volume 1, Issues 2-3, September 2003, Pages 293-315 , Ad Hoc Networks, 2003.  Vedat Coskun, Erdal Cayirci, Albert Levi, and Serdar Sancak, "Quarantine Region Scheme to Mitigate Spam Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1074-1086, Aug., 2006  S. Sancak, E. Cayirci, V. Coskun, and A. Levi, " Sensor wars: detecting and defending against spam attacks in wireless sensor networks," Communications, 2004 IEEE International Conference on, 2004 , page: 3668- 3672 Vol.620-24 June 2004 .  Stallings, W.: Cryptography and Network Security. Prentice Hall, Third edition, 2003.  H. Krawczyk, M. Bellare, and R.Canetti : RFC 2104 - HMAC: Keyed- Hashing for Message Authentication. 1997  FIPS Publication 180-1, “Secure hash standard,” NIST, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., April 1995.  Rivest, Ronald L., “The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm," Request for Comments (RFC) 1321, 1992.  B. Preneel, A. Bosselaers, and H. Dobbertin "The RIPEMD-160 Cryptographic Hash Function" Dr.Dobb''s Journal, January 1997  RFC 2202, HMAC, http://www.scit.wlv.ac.uk/rfc/rfc22xx/RFC2202.html.  W. Fumy and P. Landrock, “Principles of key management, ” IEEE Journal of Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 11, pp. 785-793, June 1993.  A. Perrig, R. Szewczyk, V. Wen, D. Culler, and J. D. Tygar, “SPINS: Security Protocols for Sensor Networks,” Wireless Networks, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 521-534, 2002.||摘要:||
無線感測器不但能偵測及感應環境的變化，更能分析所蒐集到的資訊，且透過無線通訊的功能將資料傳回至控制端。 ㄧ般而言, 無線感測網路會大量散佈在無人控制區域，且自動地傳輸資訊，因此資訊安全的議題就顯的十分重要。
本篇論文針對無線感測器網路中一種叢集(clustering)式形成的演算法，提出一個通訊安全協定, 並在其中增加鑰匙分散及管理的部份。 在這個協定中分為三個階段, 第一階段是辨識感測器在形成叢集式拓樸架構中的身分確認, 第二階段是分配叢集內與叢集間的通訊鑰匙, 第三階段是通訊鑰匙定期更新的過程。 接著說明此叢集式形成的安全協定確實能更有效的防範各類網路攻擊。
另外，當無線感測器網路遭遇(spam)攻擊時, 將利用clustering的方式形成一個隔離區, 採取訊息認證通過隔離區或利用多重路徑找到另一路由避開隔離區來傳遞訊息, 比較這兩種方式的routing表現, 並且進行一些理論分析和電腦模擬。由模擬結果得知, 採取訊息認證通過隔離區消耗較少的能量且這些能量是必須要耗費的。
Wireless sensor network is a wireless network consisting autonomous devices using sensor which equipped with a radio transceiver. In general, wireless environment is vulnerable for many kinds of security. Therefore, a secure wireless transmission attack is obviously very important.
A clustering-based secure communication protocol is proposed to resolve this problem. There are three phases in the protocol. In the first phase, the sensor in the network is needed to be verified their identifications during forming clustering topology construction. In the second phase, sensors need to manage their communication keys of intra-cluster and inter-cluster. In the third phase, sensors are required to renew keys periodically. Then we show the secure protocol can form a security agreement and can effectively protect network from attack. When the sensor network encounters a spam attack, it forms quarantined regions by using clustering mode. Authentication is needed if message pass through a quarantined region. Or the message can select a different route by passing the quarantined region. Simulation result shows that using authentication in quarantined regions is cost effective.
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