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標題: 氮肥對CAL606洋蔥鱗莖貯藏及其病害發生之影響
Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Storability of Onion cv. CAL606
作者: 辜瑞雪
Swee-Suak Ko
Yi-Ray Jiang
Woo-Nang Chang
關鍵字: Onion;洋蔥;Nitrogen fertilizer;Storage diseases;Aspergillus niger;氮肥;貯藏病害;黑黴菌;鱗莖貯藏
Project: 興大園藝, Volume 26, Issue 2, Page(s) 37-48.
Horticulture NCHU, Volume 26, Issue 2, Page(s) 37-48.
本試驗以洋蔥將栽培品種CAL606,於生產期間處理四種不同淡肥施用量(75Nkg/ha、150Nkg/ha、250Nkg/ha及對照組),進行研究。採收之後氮肥處理之鱗莖分大球(直徑8~10 cm)及中球(6.5~8 cm),共計有八個處理組,測定鱗莖之呼吸率、硬度、丙酮酸、可溶性固形物,和乾物質之含量。將各處理之洋蔥貯藏於室溫貯藏室內(27.7±2.5℃、73.6±6.8%RH),每隔三週觀察貯藏損失及罹病情形,並診斷罹病的種類。結果指出洋蔥之總損失率、氮肥施用量、腐爛率、可售球數百分率、可售重量百分率和罹黑黴病百分率依貯藏時間、氮肥施用量和鱗莖大小之不同,呈1%顯著差異水準。經貯藏21週後,施用高氮肥處理組(250 kg/ ha)其總損失率最高(57%)。洋蔥貯藏病害以黑黴病最為嚴重,造成洋蔥鱗莖31.7%之損失。丙酮酸明顯受到氮肥施用量(N)、鱗莖大小(S)及N×S交感作用之影響,氮肥施用量中等(150 kg/ ha)且為大球之處理組其丙酮酸高達8.9μ mole pyruvic acid/ g fwt)。此外,低氮肥(75 kg/ ha)處理組之鱗莖較鬆軟;人工接種黑黴菌在鱗片上,其感染之病斑最大。本試驗的結論為,田間施用太高或太低的氮肥都不利於'CAL606'洋蔥鱗莖之貯藏,因氮肥施用量影響鱗莖的水份狀態和化學組成份,導致組織抵抗病原菌之能力降低。

This experiment is to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on storability of onion bulb cv.'CAL'. Four levels of nitrogen fertilizer i.e. 75, 150, 250 kg/ha and control (168 kg/ha) were applied in the field. Bulb harvested from each level of nitrogen treatment were graded into large (8~10 cm in diameter) and medium bulb (6.5~8 cm). Bulbs were stored in ambient storage conditions ( 27.7±2.5℃、73.6±6.8 %RH) and assessed the storage loss and disease infection at three weeks interval during 21 weeks of storage. Results indicated that total storage loss, rotten, marketable bulb number, marketable weight and black mold disease infection were significantly different under storage duration, nitrogen level and bulb sizes at P≦1%. High nitrogen fertilizer treatment with 250 kg/ha showed of losses up to 57% after 21 weeks of storage. The most prevalent storage disease was black mold which caused 31.7% loss in onionbulbs. Pungency was significantly affected by nitrogen level (N), bulb size (S), and N × S interaction. Medium size bulb treated 150 kg/ha nitrogen showed highest in pungency of 8.9 μmole/gFWt, however, low nitrogen fertilizer (75 kg/ha) with large bulb had the mildest in flavor (7.2 μmole pyruvic acid/gFwt). Besides, onion with low nitrogen fertilizer treatment (75 kg/ha) tend to have less firm in texture and lower water content as well as more susceptible to Aspergillus niger infection in artificial scale inoculation. It is concluded that too high or too low nitrogen fertilizer application in feild would cause poor storability in onion bulb cv. 'CAL606' which is due to the effect of nitrogen on the changes of water status and chemical compositioms in the bulb and finally reduce the resistance to storage pathogen.
ISSN: 0255-5921
Appears in Collections:第26卷 第02期

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