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Taxonomy and Investigating of Native Species of Pyrus in Taiwan
|關鍵字:||台灣野梨;Pyrus kawakamii Hayata;楔葉豆梨;嶺南梨;台灣鳥梨;Pyrus koehnei C. K. Schneider;Pyrus taiwanensis;Iketani & Ohashi;Pyrus lindleyi Rehder||Project:||興大園藝, Volume 28, Issue 1, Page(s) 19-42.
Horticulture NCHU, Volume 28, Issue 1, Page(s) 19-42.
One native species and two naturalized species of Pyrus are recognized in Taiwan: Pyrus koehnei C. K. Schneider, which has so far been described as Pyrus kawakamii Hayata since in 1911, ‘Niauli', and Pyrus serrulata Rehder cv. ‘Hangshan'. Because of the type from Pyrus kawakamii Hayata is described as the pome that that have 3~5 carpels, and the leaf has crenulate-serrulate margin, can be distinguished with the leaf of Pyrus calleryana Decne which has crenate margin. I treated Pyrus kawakamii Hayata as a independent species. I thick Pyrus kawakamii Hayata is conspecific with Pyrus calleryana Decne var. koehnei (Schneider), which has been observed from Tiantai in Zhejiang province in Mainland China. Pyrus taiwanensis Iketani & Ohashi was described as same as Pyrus lindleyi Rehder. By comparing the type of Pyrus taiwanensis Iketani & Ohashi, I need to choose Pyrus taiwanensis Iketani & Ohashi as the name until one day the type of Pyrus lindleyi Rehder can be observed. ‘Hangshan' pear, whose calyx is persistent and leaf margin is not acute, and is not the same as Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai, and Pyrus serrulata Rehder is closer. ‘Hangshan' pear is possible a hybrid cultivars between Pyrus serrulata Rehder and other cultivars. By the reason, I treat it Pyrus serrulata Rehder cv. ‘Hangshan'.
During the field research between Pai-Gu mountain and Tai-Du mountain, I have notice several wild pear trees with numerous characters perhaps are because they were grown in wilderness. Furthermore, I have notice the plants that has the looks of the red-leaf character along with the stipulate that has long and narrow shape. Both have an excellent potential in the agricultural industry due to their low level of dormancy.
臺灣的梨屬Pyrus L.植物，以1911年發表原生台灣野梨 Pyrus Kawakamii Hayata，和相當早其引進栽培的台灣鳥梨及橫山梨，以及目前栽培的砂梨 Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai 與陸續不斷引進的各式梨種，使台灣地區的梨屬種類日益複雜。由台灣野梨Pyrus Kawakamii Hayata 之活模式標本(merotype)，果實1㎝；子房3~5室；葉緣鋸齒明顯向前彎曲(crenulate-serrulate)，與型態近似的豆梨 Pyrus calleryana Decne和楔葉豆梨Pyrus koehnei C. K. Schneider能夠區別，認為應維持使用Pyrus Kawakamii Hayata。「台灣鳥梨」族群枝條褐色；皮孔黃褐色，與嶺南梨Pyrus lindleya Rehdervu現存標本枝條黑褐色；皮孔白色有明顯區別。但1994年發表新種Pyrus taiwanensis Iketani & Ohashi，經原始發表文獻、模式標本和採集地標本的三方比對後，認為屬於台灣鳥梨的族群。衡山離萼片宿存；葉緣無芒尖，而砂梨Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai萼片脫落；葉緣有芒尖。而與華南地區的麻梨Pyrus serrulata Rehder果萼和葉緣相同，認為是麻梨於果實5室的栽培種雜交而成，初步認為應使用Pyrus serrulata Rehder cv. 'Hangshan'。
在埤谷山和大地山的田野調查結果，認為田野間野生梨樹性狀複雜，可能由於種堅雜交的關係。調查中發現具紅葉特徵的植株，和托葉狹長的植株，易於台中大肚山發現低休眠性(LCR, low chilling requirement)的植株，皆具有產業的利用價值。
|Appears in Collections:||第28卷 第01期|
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