Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/8272
標題: 適用於H.264視訊編碼之幀間畫面預測演算法分析與高精確度移動估計電路架構設計與實現
Algorithm Analysis of the Inter Prediction and the Architecture Design of Fractional Motion Estimation for H.264/AVC Applications
作者: 楊鑫平
Yang, Shin-Ping
關鍵字: inter prediction;幀間預測;fractional motion estimation;h.264;vlsi;高精確度移動估計
出版社: 電機工程學系所
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摘要: 
我們提出了兩個快速演算法,第一種為預先模式選擇演算法(Pre-Mode Decision),主要是在IME級使用SAD找到每個模式的最佳移動向量,再計算每個模式最佳移動向量的SATD並且比較找出最佳的幀間模式分割後,進入浮點移動估算級找最佳的浮點移動向量,相較於傳統的演算法,我們可以省略約七分之六的浮點移動估算的運算量,相對在硬體上也降低了功率消耗,而在編碼品質上最大損失為0.2dB。
第二種為提早中斷移動估算演算法,相較於傳統使用Laplacian Distribution機率模型來預測residue的行為,我們使用了混和機率模型來達到更準確的行為預測來得到我們所需要的中斷門檻值,並且使用簡單且硬體適性的檢查機制來提早中斷整數移動估算器的運算而幾乎無損編碼品質與位元壓縮率,而在硬體上只需要LUT以及少數控制電路即可實現。此外利用機率上的特性來決定我們提早中斷次數上的策略,區分出無損畫質、第一級省電、第二級省電與極低功率消耗這四種功率消耗策略,以保持我們編碼的品質下達到省電的目的。
此外,我們提出了能減少記憶體存取的浮點移動估算器的硬體實現架構,相較於傳統四平行度架構能減少20%的記憶體頻寬,相對的減少了記憶體匯流排的功率消耗,此外,結合我們所提出的預選模式選擇演算法,電路只需工作頻率在62.5MHz與100MHz即可分別達到720P和1080P的規格。

In this paper, we present two hardware-oriented fast algorithms of H.264 inter prediction technique. First, we propose pre-mode decision algorithm to reduce computational complexity of inter mode decision because we use SAD and SATD from IME to find the best motion vector (MV) and MB partitions, respectively. Simulation results show that pre-mode decision has 0.2dB worst than JM12.2 at CIF sequence, and seven times of FME computations can be reduced.
The other fast algorithm is early motion termination. In H.264 video coding, the motion vectors always equal to zero or motion vector predictor (MVP). And we use the conditions of skip mode modified in H.264 and additional condition for MV is (0,0) to replace MV is MVP originally, to calculate SAD and check it by modified threshold values before integer motion estimate. The threshold values are made by all zero block check method (AZBC) with hybrid mathematical statistical model, and it can be change by different model according to quantization parameter and our defined power budget. Simulation results show that early motion termination will terminate unnecessary estimated MB under different mode with different percentages and R/D curve performance of our defined high quality mode is almost as well as JM.
Besides, in order to reduce memory access, we also propose a VLSI architecture design of fractional motion estimator. Compare to traditional architecture, we can reduce memory bandwidth by 20 % and power consumption of memory bus. According to the TSMC 0.18um CMOS technology, the proposed design costs 88.2k gates with the maximum working frequency of 100MHz. This design can realize the real-time H.264/AVC encoding on D1 video.
Finally, we combine with our proposed pre-mode decision algorithm and fractional motion estimator. It can realize the real-time H.264/AVC encoding on 720P video and 1080P video at operation frequency of 62.5MHz and 100MHz, respectively.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/8272
其他識別: U0005-2108200815080600
Appears in Collections:電機工程學系所

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