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|標題:||Cumulative body burdens of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with estrogen bioactivation in pregnant women: Protein adducts as biomarkers of exposure||關鍵字:||Protein adducts;tissue dose;naphthalene;quinones||Project:||Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, Volume 49, Issue 6, Page(s) 634-640.||摘要:||
The objective of this research was to simultaneously analyze protein adducts of quinonoid metabolites of naphthalene and endogenous estrogen in serum albumin (Alb) derived from healthy pregnant women in Taiwan and to explore the correlations among them. The isomeric forms of cysteinyl adducts of naphthoquinones, including 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NPQ) and 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4-NPQ) as well as estrogen quinones, including estrogen-2,3-quinones (E2-2,3-Q) and estrogen-3,4-quinones (E2-3,4-Q), are characterized after adduct cleavage. Results showed that the median levels of cysteinyl adducts of 1,2-NPQ and 1,4-NPQ on serum albumin were 249-390 and 16.0–24.8 pmol g−1, respectively. Logged levels of 1,2-NPQ-Alb were correlated with logged levels of 1,4-NPQ-Alb (correlation coefficient r = 0.551, P < 0.001). Cysteinyl adducts of E2-2,3-Q-1-S-Alb, E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb, and E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb were detected in all subjects with median levels at 275-435, 162-288, and 197-254 pmol g−1, respectively. We also found a positive relationship between logged levels of E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb and those of E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb (r = 0.770, P < 0.001).We noticed that median levels of E2-2,3-Q-derived adducts (E2-2,3-Q-1-S-Alb plus E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb) in pregnant women were greater than those of E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb (∼2–3-fold). Taken together, this evidence lends further support to the theme that cumulative concentration of E2-3,4-Q is a significant predictor of the risk of breast cancer. Furthermore, we noticed that levels of 1,2-NPQ-Alb are positively associated with levels of E2-3,4-Q-2-S-Alb (r = 0.522, P < 0.001) and those of E2-2,3-Q-4-S-Alb (r = 0.484, P < 0.001). Overall, this evidence suggests that environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may modulate estrogen homeostasis and enhance the production of reactive quinone species of endogenous estrogen in humans.
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