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標題: Copper seed layer repair using an electroplating process for through siliconvia metallization
關鍵字: Through silicon via (TSV);Copper seed layer;Copper electroplating
Project: Microelectronic Engineering, Volume 105, Page(s) 25-30.
Through silicon via (TSV) is a key technology for three-dimensional chip stacking, which serves as abridge to connect multiple devices in the z-direction. Void-free copper deposition in a TSV is essentialfor reliable TSV fabrication. Deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process (i.e., the Bosch process) has beenwidely used for deep TSV formation because of its high aspect-ratio etching capability. However, the sidewallof a TSV is not flat after the DRIE process, which frequently results in a so-called ‘‘scallop’’ structureon the sidewall. After a copper seed layer is deposited on the TSV sidewall by sputtering, the step coverageof the copper seed layer is poor, especially at a high aspect ratio. To solve this problem, we use a copperelectroplating process to repair the discontinuous seed layer caused by the ‘‘scallop’’ structure. Theseed layer repair formula that contains a polymer additive allows the growth of an electroplated copperseed layer to be faster in the horizontal direction (parallel to the sidewall surface) than in the verticaldirection (normal to the sidewall). The polymer additive is a crosslinked polyamide that bears organicfunctional groups of R1ANH2 and R2ACOANHAR3, which prefers to stay on the terraces of copper crystalsto inhibit the vertical copper deposition and correspondingly facilitate the horizontal copper deposition.After the repair plating process, the discontinuous seed layer becomes continuous, so that TSVs withdiameters of 20 lm, which originally failed to achieve copper superfilling, are fully filled by means of copperelectroplating.
Appears in Collections:化學工程學系所

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