Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/8492
標題: 日治時期台灣小說中的台灣話文與民俗書寫研究 ──以〈媒婆〉、〈王爺豬〉、〈鬼〉為例
A Study on Taiwanese-language and Folklore Writing in "Matchmaker," "Wanye Worship," and "Ghost"
作者: 李雅敏
Li, Ya-Min
關鍵字: Folklore Writing;民俗書寫;Taiwanese-language;The Matchmaker;The Wanye Worship;The Ghost;台灣話文;〈媒婆〉;〈王爺豬〉;〈鬼〉
出版社: 台灣文學研究所
摘要: 
日治時期日本人的台灣漢人民俗研究相當盛行,日本人殖民者試圖透過這些民俗研究資料理解台灣人的慣習信仰,並藉以研擬諸般治台政策,其後更逐步禁止台灣舊慣習俗,加速同化政策的推行。除了以優越心態面對台灣的舊慣習俗,將其視為落後及迷信的行為,這些民俗研究多只是條列式的記載,不能全面性的記錄民俗活動形成的背景以及獨特性,也沒有說明舊慣、習俗與信仰在台灣百姓的日常生活中究竟有何重要性。相對地,台灣人知識分子有感於殖民統治下台灣文化遭受曲解的危機,或投入民俗文化的相關書寫,或在小說創作中融入大量民俗題材與書寫。
本文第三章首先討論蔡秋桐的小說〈媒婆〉。蔡秋桐以台灣話作為主述語言,除了彰顯庶民階層的對話方式,創造生動的情境之外,也讓傳統的婚嫁現場再現於紙上。作者從各個角度切入,除了探討舊式婚姻制度底下的各式問題,也帶領讀者深入認識媒婆的角色定位以及形象。本文第四章討論蔡秋桐的另一篇小說〈王爺豬〉。蔡秋桐透過小人物的對話,讓讀者理解整個王爺祭典的文化,也讓這個向來被民俗學者認定為迷信的王爺信仰,有重新被檢視的機會,其中,台灣話文的使用除了讓對話中的人們顯得歷歷在目之外,也讓整個王爺祭典的描述更貼近現實。本文第五章討論郭秋生的小說〈鬼〉。郭秋生以主角李四遭鬼害的事件為引,延伸出當時的庶民百姓對於鬼魂及有應公信仰的無知與迷信。作者透過李四死亡一事,試圖顛覆台灣民間傳說的鬼怪經驗,讓讀者重新思考鬼魂崇拜的合理性,以及鬼神信仰與迷信之間的關係。
條列式的民俗研究記錄雖然相當清楚的讓讀者知道民俗儀式如何進行,卻無法令人感受到民俗活動的現場,以及參與群眾的反應。不同於一般的民俗研究,小說包含了故事、情節發展與人物對話,這三者的藝術性與想像力正是小說吸引讀者的重要關鍵。小說中虛構的情節、人物與場景等,讓作者能透過主觀的角度,表達民俗活動的不同層面,而不只是僵化的資料記錄。另外,透過虛構的場景,可以引導讀者隨著故事中的人物思緒起伏,進入小說中設定的世界,參與主角們的活動與對話,感受該民間信仰或習俗。台灣話文的使用,更能呈現以台灣庶民為主角的台灣民俗現場。也就是說,台灣人小說創作中的民俗書寫,不管在內容或是語言形式上,都能夠呈現出以日本人為主的民俗研究所無法捕捉到的地方。

During the Japanese-ruled period, most Japanese were interested in the research of the Han peoples' folklores. Japanese colonizers tried to realize the Taiwanese peoples' customs through their folklores research and tended to invent some policies to rule the Taiwanese people. So they prohibited some old Taiwanese customs step by step in order to promote the assimilation. With their sense of superiority, they considered those Taiwanese customs to be an uncultivated and superstitious conduct. For those customs research were all listed item by item. They neither recorded the background and the unique of the customs nor clarified the importance of those customs among Taiwanese daily life. On the other hand, some Taiwanese intellectuals, who thought the customs might be twisted just because of the colonization, all made every endeavor in customs writing or wrote lots of customs in their novels.
The third chapter of this essay is to discuss the novel “ The Matchmaker” which was written by Chiou-Torng Tsay. Mr. Tsay wrote the novel mostly in Taiwanese. It not only manifested the social conversations between the common people but also wrote down the traditional marriage in a vivid way. The author wrote the novel from different kinds of view. It not only discussed all kinds of problems originated from the old-fashioned marriage but led the readers to realize deeply the matchmaker's character and image. As to the fourth chapter, it discussed about Mr. Tsay's another novel---“ The Wanye Worship “. Mr. Tsay let the readers realize all the nobleman's ceremonies of offering sacrifices. Besides that, it also offered a reexamine chance for the nobleman belief which was considered to be superstitious by those folklores scholars. The usage of the Taiwanese language for all the characters was so vivid that all the descriptions about the nobleman's ceremonies of offering sacrifices were much more reallife. And for the fifth chapter, it mentioned about the novel -“ The Ghost “ which was written by Chiou-Sheng Guo. At first, the story mentioned the main character—Li-Syh who was persecuted by ghosts and then reflected the common people's ignorant and superstitious behaviors about the ghosts. The author intended to subvert peoples' ghost experience in Taiwan just by the death of Li-Syh. Thus, it made the readers reconsider about the reasonableness of ghost worship and the relationship between the ghost worship and the superstition.
Because of all the records listed item by item, people could understand clearly the process of the customs ceremonies. But they couldn't let people feel the right sight atmosphere or involve in the crowd's activities. Unlike the normal customs researches, the novel contained the story, plots and conversations whose art and imagination were the key point that attracted the readers' attention. With his subjective point of view, the author made the assumed plots, characters and the stages clearly present all the different levels of the customs and offered not just stiff data. Besides, through the assumed plots, it could lead the readers' thought into the novel world to feel and participate in the real belief or customs among the people. The usage of the Taiwanese language could state more clearly the Taiwanese characters with the Taiwanese customs sight. That means the Taiwanese creative novels written about the folklores in Taiwanese could present more clearly than what the Japanese research did.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/8492
Appears in Collections:臺灣文學與跨國文化研究所

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